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ELECTRIC CIRCUITS 1 ENT161/4 En. Mohd Arinal Prof. Madya Dr. Mohd Rizon

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COURSE STRUKTURE Final Exam : 50% Assessment : 10% Lab : 40% 100% 100%

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COURSE OBJEKTIVE Learn about Electric Circuits component and AD/DC circuit analysis method

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COURSE SYLLABUS Circuit Elements and Variables SI Unit, Voltage and Current, Power, Energy, Basic Circuit Elements ( Passive and Active), Voltage and Current Source, Ohm’s law, Kirchoff’s Law, Circuit Model, Circuit with Dependent Source. Introduction to an Inductor, Voltage relationship, Current, Power and Energy, Capacitor and Combination of Serial-Parallel Inductor and Capacitor. Resistance Circuit Serial/Series Resistors, Circuit Voltage/Current Dividers, Measurement of Voltage and Current, Wheatstone Bridge and Equal Circuit Delta-Wye (Pi- Tee) Circuit Analysis Method Node-Voltage Method and this Method encompass Dependent Source and Special Case. Introduction to Mesh-Current Method which encompass Dependent Source and Special Case. Point Transformation. Equivalent Circuits of Thevenin and Norton. Maximum Power Transfer and Superposition. Mutual Inductance Introduction to Self Induction, Concepts of Mutual Inductance, Induced Mutual Polar Voltage, Energy Calculation, Linear and Ideal Transformer, Coupled Magnet in Equivalent Roll Circuit, Ideal Transformer in Equivalent Circuit.

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RL and RC circuits first-order response RL and RC circuit original response, step response (forced function) RL and RC circuits, general solution of original and step responses, sequential switching, introduction to original and step RLC circuit. Steady state Sinusoidal analysis Sine Source, Sine Response, Phase Concept, Circuits Passive Element in Frequency Domain, Impedance and Reactance, Kirchoff’s Law in Frequency Domain, Circuit Analysis Techniques in Frequency Domain. Step Frequency in AC Circuit Step Frequency (Magnitude Plot and Phase Stripe Pass, Stripe Limit), Cut Frequency, Typical Filter Type, Low-pass Filter in RL and RC Circuits, High- Pass Filter in RL and RC Circuits, RLC Stripe Pass Filter, Frequency Response using Bode Diagram. Steady state Sinusoidal Power calculation Real-Time Power, Average and Reactive Power, Force Calculation and RMS Value, Complex and Triangulation Power, Maximum Force Transfer in Impedance Term. Power Circuits Systems One and Two Phase Systems, Equal Three Phase Point Voltage, Y-Delta Circuit Analysis, Power Calculation in Equal Three Phase Circuit, Average Power Calculation in Three Phase Circuit.

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Circuit Elements and Variables Circuits analysis revision SI Units Voltage and Current, Power, Energy Basic Circuit Elements ( Passive and Active) Voltage and Current Source Ohm’s law Kirchoff’s Law Circuit Model Circuit with Dependent Source

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Circuit Elements and Variables Introduction to an Inductor Voltage relationship Current, Power and Energy Capacitor and Combination of Serial- Parallel Inductor and Capacitor

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Circuits analysis revision Analysis : Study (Mathematics) about complex identity and the mutually parts connection. Circuits : An arrangement of physical components that use voltage, current, and resistance to perform some useful function. Analisis litar : Based on mathematical techniques and is used to predict the behavior of the circuit model and its ideal circuit components.

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SI Units SI : International System of Unit introduce by National Bureau of Standards in 1964 QuantityBasic UnitSymbol LengthMeterm MassKilogramkg TimeSeconds Electric currentAmpereA Termodynamic Temperature Kelvink Luminous intensity candelacd

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One great advantage of the SI unit is that it uses prefixes based on the power of 10 to relate larger and smaller units to the basic unit. MultiplierPrefixSymbol TeraT 10 9 GigaG 10 6 MegaM 10 3 Kilok Millim Micro Nanon Picop Femtof Attoa

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Current Electric current is the time rate of change of charge, measured in amperes (A) 1A=1C/s Direct current (dc): current that remains constant with time. Alternating current (ac): current that varies sinusodally with time. i = current in ampere i = current in ampere q= charge in coulomb q= charge in coulomb t = time in second

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Current direct currentAlternating current exponential currentDamped current

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Voltage Voltage (potential difference): energy required to move a unit charge through an element, measured in volts (V). An honour of Italian Physician, Alessandro Antonio Anastasio Volta in 18 century. One voltage equal to one Joule per coulomb. v = voltage in volt v = voltage in volt w = energy in Joule q = charge in coulomb

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Power Power is the time rate of expending or absorbing energy, measured in watts (W) Power absorbed = - Power supplied p = power in watt (W=J/s) p = power in watt (W=J/s) w = energy in joule (J) t = time in second (s) v = voltage in volt (V) I = current in ampere (A)

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Energy Laws of conservation of energy: sum of power absorbed by electric circuit was zero. Otherwords, All supplied energy on one circuit was equal to absorbed energy. Energy is the capacity to do work, measured in joules (J).

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Basic Circuit Elements One element on simple circuit is a mathematical model for electric apparatus that have two terminals. Basic Circuit Elements Active Elements Could supplied power to circuits Example : Voltage and Current source Passive Elements Only could absorb power Example : resistor, inductance, capasitance, diod and etc.

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Voltage and Current Source Independent source establishes a voltage or current in a circuit without relying on voltages or currents elsewhere in the circuit. Dependent source establishes a voltage or current whose value depends on a value of a voltage or current elsewhere in the circuit. Ideal voltage source is a circuit element that maintains prescribed voltage across its terminals regardless of the current flowing in those terminals. Ideal current source is a circuit element that maintains a prescribed current through its terminals regardless of the voltage across in those terminals.

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Independent source VoltageCurrent

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Dependent source dependent voltage- Controlled voltage source dependent current- controlled voltage source dependent voltage- controlled current source dependent current- controlled current source

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Ohm’s law Ohm’s law states that the voltage V across a resistor is directly proportional to the current i flowing through the resistor. An honour of German Physician, George Simon Ohm in 19 century.

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Thus, equation becomes R = resistance measured in ohm ( ) R = resistance measured in ohm ( )

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Conductance is the ability of an element to conduct electric circuit; it is measured in siemens (S)

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Kirchhoff’s laws were first introduced in 1847 by German physicist Gustav Robert Kirchhoff. He introduced two laws : 1.Kirchhoff’s Current law (KCL) 2.Kirchhoff’s Voltage law (KVL)

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Kirchhoff’s Current law (KCL) KCL states that the algebraic sum of currents entering a node (or a closed boundary) is zero.

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Mathematically, KCL implies that entering current=leaving current entering current=leaving current By this law, currents entering a node may be regarded as positive, while currents leaving the node may be taken as negative.

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Kirchhoff’s Voltage law (KVL) KVL states that the algebraic sum of all voltages around a closed path (or loop) is zero.

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Expressed mathematically, KVL states that

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Circuit Model Circuit model is mathematic model that described electrical system. An ideal circuit component is a mathematically model of an actual electric component that connect series or parallel.

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Series Circuit Two element connect series if: 1.This two circuit element only have one point connection. 2.Point between this two element wasn’t connected with other current supply.

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Example : Series circuit

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Parallel Circuit Two element, branch or sequence are parallel if connect with two point.

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Example : Parallel circuit

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Series-Parallel circuit combination Series-Parallel circuit could combine to have one complex sequence circuit.

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Example : Series-Parallel circuit combination

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CIRCUIT WITH DEPENDENT SOURCE

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By using Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law at first loop, (1) (1)

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By using Kirchhoff’s Current law at second loop, (2)

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Solve equation (1) and (2)

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By using Ohm’s law at 20Ω resistor

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Question 1

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a) b)

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c) d)

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Question 2 Calculate I and V0

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Answer:

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Question 3 Calculate current value for this circuit by using Kirchhoff Volatage law.

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Current flows clockwise direction

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Current flows anti-clockwise direction

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Voltage at resistor:

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Power absorbed by resistor :

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Question 4

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By using Kirchhoff Voltage law at those two loop, below equation can be define:

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Solve those two equation

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By using Ohm’s law at 3Ω resistor

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Reference Nilson And Riedel. (1996). Electric Circuits. 7th E. Addison Wesley, Reading, Massachusetts Alexander and Sadiku. Fundamentals Of Electric Circuits. 3th E. McGraw-Hill IE.

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