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Some Innovative Elements of Several Courses That Integrate Emergency Management and Homeland Security Concerns and Some Suggested Materials Paula D. Gordon,

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Presentation on theme: "Some Innovative Elements of Several Courses That Integrate Emergency Management and Homeland Security Concerns and Some Suggested Materials Paula D. Gordon,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Some Innovative Elements of Several Courses That Integrate Emergency Management and Homeland Security Concerns and Some Suggested Materials Paula D. Gordon, Ph.D. Presentation FEMA Higher Education Conference, Emmitsburg, Maryland, June 6 - 9, 2011

2 An All-Hazards Approach A case for an all-hazards approach that encompasses a full range of possible hazards and catastrophic events that face us post-9/11 and post Katrina. The shift in Federal policy toward an All-Hazards Approach. 2

3 Some EM & HS Courses This presentation provides an overview of some innovative aspects of several of the courses that Dr. Gordon teaches, with a focus on courses that she has developed and is currently in the process of developing and refining for three university programs. These include integrated courses in emergency management and homeland security: 3

4 : Auburn University’s Center for Governmental Services’ Emergency Management for Government and Private Sector Certificate Program Key Elements of Critical Infrastructure Protection and Continuity Post 9/11 and Post Katrina: April 4 – May 1, 2011 Planning and Preparedness for Homeland Security and Emergency Management Post-9/11 and Post- Katrina: June 13 – July 10, 2011 Unmet Needs and Challenges: Some Key Challenges Facing Homeland Security and Emergency Management Post 9/11 and Post Katrina: October 3 – October 30, 2011 For further information, see 4

5 Courses at the University of Richmond and Eastern Kentucky University University of Richmond: Hazards and Threats for the Future Spring 2011 University of Richmond: Research Practicum Fall 2011 Eastern Kentucky University HLS 800 Homeland Security Policy Analysis Fall (B)

6 Some Perspectives Concerning Emergency Management And the Role of Homeland Security Concerns in Emergency Management Is the focus of emergency management solely on natural hazards? Does the focus on emergency management include an all-hazards approach that encompasses terrorism and homeland security threats and challenges? Does the focus on emergency management encompass both an all-hazards approach and attention to catastrophic events? Does the focus on emergency management encompasses a goal of helping individuals develop the knowledge base, skill sets, and capabilities needed to assume and more effectively carry out their roles of responsibility relating to an all-hazards approach to emergency management? 6

7 Some Organizing Typologies, Concepts, and Tools Todd Stewart’s Counter-Terrorism Strategic Model: Similarities between this depiction of the homeland security cycle and the emergency management cycle A Typology of Emergencies of Differing Levels of Severity The Homeland Security Impact Scale and its Applicability to an All-Hazards Approach to Emergency Management The Public Safety/National Security Grid 7

8 Todd Stewart’s Counter-Terrorism Strategic Model: Todd Stewart's model is helpful in depicting a comprehensive approach to preventing as well as preparing for and responding to potential terrorist-related events. A model that helps clarify key similarities and differences between the homeland security cycle and the emergency management cycle A model that importantly includes mitigation. 8

9 Todd Stewart’s Counter-Terrorism Strategic Model Deterrence Prediction Prevention(Pre-emption) Detect & Characterize Mitigation(Preparation and Protection) CrisisManagement Forensics & Attribution Post-EventResponse Recovery & Reconstitution TERRORISM EVENT OR CAMPAIGN Identify & Characterize Threats 9

10 Paula Gordon’s All-Hazards Adaptation of Todd Stewart’s Strategic Model: The following adaptation of Todd Stewart's model is helpful in depicting a comprehensive approach to preventing as well as preparing for and responding to potential events involving all hazards, whatever their origin may be. A model that helps clarify key similarities and differences between the homeland security cycle and the emergency management cycle A model that importantly includes preparedness mitigation, and situational awareness. 10

11 Preparedness Remediation,Protective Measures, & Mitigation Contingency Planning & Situational Awareness & Assessment When & If the Event is Foreseeable or Imminent & When the Event Occurs Paula D. Gordon, Ph.D, 5/20/2011 Modeled Loosely on an Adaptation of Todd Stewart’s Counter Terrorism Strategic Model Continuity of Operations Planning Operations Planning & Event Response Post-EventResponse Recovery & Reconstitution Plus Mitigation & PreparednessMeasures for the Future AN ALL- HAZARDSEMERGENCYMANAGEMENTCYCLE Identify, Assess, & Characterize Hazards Crisis Management Management

12 A Typology of Emergencies of Differing Levels of Severity A typology that is pertinent to an all-hazards approach to emergency management as well as to a natural hazards approach to emergency management. A typology that helps clarify the differences in impacts of emergencies of differing levels of severity and the implications of those differences for the emergency management cycle. 12

13 A Typology of Emergencies Size of Emergency Number of Dead & Injured Roles of Government ApproachCharacteristics of Care Skill & Training Needs Small ScaleScoresLocal, State, and Regional Surge of capa- bilities ManageableSurge capa- bility Medium Scale HundredsAll levels of government ModifiedNormal to minimal Networked surge capability Large Scale ThousandsAll levels of government Modified to makeshift Normal to minimal Networked surge capability Catastrophic Scale MillionsAll levels of government Mostly makeshift Minimal or worse Make do capability Mega- Catastrophe Multi- millions to billions Remaining vestiges of government Totally makeshift Minimal if existent Improvisa- tional skills Adapted from P. Gordon " Comparative Scenario and Options Analysis: Important Tools for Agents of Change Post 9/11 and Post Hurricane Katrina," Homeland Security Review, Vol. 1 No. 2, 2006 ( ) 13

14 The Homeland Security Impact Scale: Its Applicability to an All-Hazards Approach to Emergency Management The Homeland Security Impact Scale provides a common frame of reference that can be useful in considering and arriving at a consensus concerning the impacts of disasters. The Homeland Security Impact Scale provides a common frame of reference that can be useful in considering actions that can be taken to mitigate the impacts of disasters or emergencies of differing levels of severity or to address and help reverse them once they have occurred. 14

15 Homeland Security Impact Scale 0 -- No real impact on national security, economic security, or personal security 1 -- Local impact in areas directly affected 2 -- Significant impact in some areas that were not directly affected 3 -- Significant market adjustment (20% plus drop); some business and industries destabilized; some bankruptcies, including increasing number of personal bankruptcies and bankruptcies of small businesses, and waning of consumer confidence 4 -- Economic slowdown spreads; rise in unemployment and underemployment accompanied by possible isolated disruptive incidents and acts, increase in hunger and homelessness 5 -- Cascading impacts including mild recession; isolated supply problems; isolated infrastructure problems; accompanied by possible increase in disruptive incidents and acts, continuing societal impacts 15

16 Homeland Security Impact Scale (Continued) 6 -- Moderate to strong recession or increased market volatility; regional supply problems; regional infrastructure problems accompanied by possible increase in disruptive incidents and acts; worsening societal impacts 7 -- Spreading supply problems and infrastructure problems accompanied by possible increase in disruptive incidents and acts, worsening societal impacts, and major challenges posed to elected and non-elected public officials 8 -- Depression; increased supply problems; elements of infrastructure crippled accompanied by likely increase in disruptive incidents and acts; worsening societal impacts; and national and global markets severely impacted 9 -- Widespread supply problems; infrastructure verging on collapse with both national and global consequences; worsening economic and societal impacts accompanied by likely widespread disruptions Possible unraveling of the social fabric, nationally and globally, jeopardizing the ability of governments to govern and keep the peace 16

17 Homeland Security Impact Scale (Continued) "Disruptions" and "incidents" can include demonstrations, work stoppages, strikes, organized or spontaneous vandalism, looting, and riots. Also included are sabotage and terrorist acts and attacks. (The scale and these notations have been adapted by Paula D.Gordon from the Y2K Impact Scale developed by Bruce F. Webster of WDCY2K and sent by him to the membership of WDCY2K on March 4, 1998.) "Supply problems" and "infrastructure problems" may include food shortages; availability of potable water; degradation of water purity, water distribution and/or waste management; fuel/heating oil shortages, disruptions in utilities (power, gas, telecommunications), disruption in the financial sector, disruptions in transportation (airlines, trains, trucking, ports, ships); pharmaceutical shortages; disruption of health care services or emergency medical services; disruption of fire and public safety services; disruptions or inadequacies, or overwhelming of public works operations and services. 17

18 The Public Safety/Homeland Security Grid A way of seeing public safety and homeland security as being mutually inclusive A balanced and integrated emphasis on both public safety and homeland security, not one over the other. 18

19 The Public Safety/ Homeland Security Grid 9,1 9,9 Public Safety 5,5 1,1 Homeland Security 1,9 19

20 Some Selected Materials The following are materials, websites, videos, and DVD’s that can be used in the development and implementation of courses and curricula focusing on an all-hazards approach to homeland security and emergency management. Complete references for these materials can be found in the “List of Homeland Security and Emergency Management References and Resources” compiled by Paula D. Gordon and posted at GordonPublicAdministration.com (http://GordonPublicAdministration.com ). The 102 page List of References and Resources includes twenty-two categories and is posted in two parts in the File Section of the GordonPublicAdministration.com website. GordonHomeland.com (http://GordonHomeland.com) and GordonPublicAdministration.com (http://GordonPublicAdministration.com) include articles, reports, publications, and presentations on homeland security and emergency management and organizational, managerial, ethical, and educational issues. The websites have been developed by Paula D. Gordon and are provided as a free public service.http://GordonHomeland.comhttp://GordonPublicAdministration.com 20

21 Some Selected Materials (Continued) Paula D. Gordon, “Improving Homeland Security & Critical Infrastructure Protection and Continuity Efforts.” Access at ort.pdf or use link at ort.pdf Paula D. Gordon, “The Different Nature of Terrorism and Terrorist Threats Post-9/11 and the Implications of These Differences.” Use link at or access at entnatureofterrorism.htm.http://gordonhomeland.com entnatureofterrorism.htm 21

22 Some Selected Materials (Continued) Walid Phares, author of The War of Ideas: Jihadism against Democracy and Future Jihad: Terrorist Strategies against the West, presentation at the Heritage Foundation, February 27, View online at spanvideo.org/program/ http://www.c- spanvideo.org/program/ Walid Phares, "Education Versus Jihad.” HS Today, November Also access at php?id= php?id= “Obsession: Radical Islam’s War Against the West,” a documentary, Available on DVD at 22

23 Some Selected Materials (Continued) A new documentary entitled “Iranium” is accessible at “In approximately 60 minutes, Iranium powerfully reports on the many aspects of the threat America and the world now faces using rarely-before seen footage of Iranian leaders, and interviews with 25 leading politicians, Iranian dissidents, and experts on: Middle East policy, terrorism, and nuclear proliferation.” In this documentary, the threat of Iran’s use of EMP (electromagnetic pulse) and its possible impacts are mentioned.http://www.iraniumthemovie.com/ 23

24 Some Selected Materials (Continued) CSIS Statesmen's Forum video OR transcript: John Brennan, Assistant to the President for Homeland Security and Counterterrorism, “Securing the Homeland by Renewing American Strength, Resilience, and Values,” Wednesday, May 26, Access at brennan.pdf or see event transcript at the same URL.http://csis.org/files/attachments/100526_csis- brennan.pdf Newt Gingrich: America at Risk: Camus, National Security, and Afghanistan. American Enterprise Institution, Thursday, July 29, Access at (URL for the Resources that Newt Gingrich quoted from and some of the quotes in his presentation: %20July%2029-%202010%20Event%20Materials.pdf.)America at Risk: Camus, National Security, and Afghanistan %20July%2029-%202010%20Event%20Materials.pdf 24

25 Some Selected Materials (Continued) “Principles of Emergency Management” from FEMA: es.asp es.asp Principles of Emergency Management October 10, 2008, 1 page.Principles of Emergency Management Principles of Emergency Management Brochure. September 11, pages.Principles of Emergency Management Brochure. Principles of Emergency Management Slide Presentation. Developed by Jim Fraser, February 14, Slides. Principles of Emergency Management Slide Presentation. 25

26 Some Selected Materials (Continued) Claire B. Rubin, editor, Emergency Management: The American Experience 1900 – 2005, Public Entity Risk Institute, (http://riskinstitute.org ), 2007.http://riskinstitute.org Claire B. Rubin, 4/9/08 Transcript of Forum Presentation: Emergency Management: The American Experience, 1900 – View at David A. McEntire, Introduction to Homeland Security: Understanding Terrorism with an Emergency Management Perspective, Wiley,

27 Some Selected Materials (Continued) Stephen Flynn speaking on his book The Edge of Disaster ~ Rebuilding a Resilient Nation at the Houston World Affairs Council, March 27, See video at spanvideo.org/program/ http://www.c- spanvideo.org/program/ Stephen Flynn, The Edge of Disaster, Random House, Secretary Mike Leavitt, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Emergency Preparedness Health Summit, National Press Club, April 18, View online at SPAN.org/videolibrary. ID# minutes.http://www.C- SPAN.org/videolibrary 27

28 Some Selected Materials (Continued) April 2003 Frontline Program: Cyberwar (PBS) (Also see archived program, transcript, and interviews online at Paula D. Gordon, "Infrastructure Threats and Challenges: Before and After September 11, 2001". PA TIMES, Vol. 24, Issue 12, December Reprinted as a commentary in the Journal of Homeland Security, April 16, Also posted at ml or see link at mlhttp://gordonhomeland.com Paula D. Gordon, "A Matrix Approach to Comparing and Contrasting Some Differing Perspectives on the Federal Government’s Role in Hurricane Katrina and in Potential Catastrophic Events in the Future." Access at 28

29 Some Selected Materials (Continued) Critical Infrastructure Task Force. Washington, DC: Homeland Security Advisory Council, January 2006 (50 pages). Access at: Ted G. Lewis, Critical Infrastructure Protection in Homeland Security ~ Defending a Networked Nation, Wiley-Interscience, Naval Postgraduate School Course Materials and videos on radical extremism and the resources of the Homeland Security Digital Library. Access at https://www.hsdl.org. https://www.hsdl.org 29

30 Some Selected Materials (Continued) *General Russel Honore, Presentation on Hurricane Katrina, a presentation before the Houston Forum on February 13, Access at spanvideo.org/program/id/ http://www.c- spanvideo.org/program/id/ *General Russel Honore, September 9, 2005 CNN transcript in which General Honore compares the crisis to a football game in which you cannot expect to win any ground in the first quarter. Michael Brown, Presentation on Hurricane Katrina and Weather Emergency Preparedness, January 18, 2006 Video can be viewed at spanvideo.org/program/id/ http://www.c- spanvideo.org/program/id/ * For particularly significant insights into the massive challenges relating to catastrophic event planning, preparedness, mitigation, and response and the Federal approach to Hurricane Katrina 30

31 Some Selected Materials (Continued) Michael Brown, February 11, 2006, Congressional Deposition. Access at Paula D. Gordon, "Thoughts about Katrina: Responses to Two Questions about Hurricane Katrina and America's Resilience,“ December 1, 2005 (Prepared for the December 19-21, 2005 Forum on Building America's Resilience to Hazards, sponsored by The American Meteorological Society in collaboration with The Space Enterprise Council of the U.S. Chamber of Commerce.) Access at 31

32 Some Selected Materials (Continued) *Susan B. Glasser and Michael Grunwald, "Department's Mission Was Undermined From Start", Washington Post, December 22, Access at dyn/content/article/2005/12/21/AR html. dyn/content/article/2005/12/21/AR html *Michael Grunwald and Susan B. Glasser, "Brown's Turf Wars Sapped FEMA's Strength" Washington Post, December 23, Access at dyn/content/article/2005/12/22/AR html?nav=hcmod ule. dyn/content/article/2005/12/22/AR html?nav=hcmod ule * For extraordinary insights into the background Federal homeland security efforts from after 9/11 through Hurricane Katrina. 32

33 Some Selected Materials (Continued) Paula D. Gordon, Presenter, "Improving Homeland Security - Continuing Challenges and Opportunities," transcript of Emergency Information Infrastructure Partnership (EIIP) Virtual Forum, March 24, Posted at Paula D. Gordon, "Transforming and Leading Organizations," (Examples from disaster management.) (Posted at Also published in Government Transformation, Winter issue. 33

34 Some Selected Materials (Continued) Paula D. Gordon, "Capabilities and Skills Needed by Those in New Roles of Responsibility for Homeland Security at the Federal, State, and Local Levels of Government." Posted at and published in the PA TIMES, Vol. 28, Issue 3, March 2005 (a publication of the American Society for Public Administration). Paula D. Gordon, "Comparative Scenario and Options Analysis: Important Tools for Agents of Change Post 9/11 and Post Hurricane Katrina," Homeland Security Review, Vol. 1 No. 2, Posted at or Analysis.html.http://gordonhomeland.com Analysis.html 34

35 Some Selected Materials (Continued) Paula D. Gordon, "Public Administration in the Public Interest: Thoughts About Public Administration Post September 11, 2001". Posted at dministration_in_the_pub.html or see link at dministration_in_the_pub.html Paula D. Gordon, "The 9/11 Commission as an Incident Debriefing" May 18, Posted at iefing.pdf or see link at iefing.pdf 35

36 Some Selected Materials (Continued) Paula D. Gordon, “The Homeland Security Impact Scale: An Alternative Approach to Assessing Homeland Security and Critical Infrastructure Protection Efforts and a Frame of Reference for Understanding and Addressing Current Challenges.” Access at elandsecurityimpactscale.htm or use link at elandsecurityimpactscale.htm Paula D. Gordon, “Strategic Planning and Y2K Technology Challenges:Lessons and Legacies for Homeland Security.” Access at nd_strat.html or use link at nd_strat.html 36

37 Some Selected Materials (Continued) Paula D. Gordon, “Using E-Technology to Advance Homeland Security Efforts.” Access at ogy.html or use link at ogy.html Paula D. Gordon, “A Common Goal for Contingency Planning and Management, Emergency Management, and Homeland Security: Building a Disaster Resilient Nation.” Access at nGoal.html or use link at nGoal.html 37

38 Some Selected Materials (Continued) Paula D. Gordon, "The State of Emergency Management and Homeland Security," PA TIMES, Vol. 30, Issue 8, August Also posted at or see or M.html.http://gordonhomeland.com M.html Paula D. Gordon, “Challenges for the Future of Homeland Security and Emergency Management Education,” PA TIMES, Vol. 31, Issue 8, August Also see 38

39 University Affiliations, Contact Information & Websites Paula D. Gordon, Ph.D. Auburn University Emergency Management for Government & Private Sector Certificate Program University of Richmond Eastern Kentucky University Phone: (202) Websites: andhttp://GordonPublicAdministration.com 39


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