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Illustration of bootstrapping in the FFSF Daniel Messinger, Marygrace Yale Kaiser, Alan Cobo-Lewis, & Peter Mundy Supported by NICHD 38336 & 41619 & The.

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Presentation on theme: "Illustration of bootstrapping in the FFSF Daniel Messinger, Marygrace Yale Kaiser, Alan Cobo-Lewis, & Peter Mundy Supported by NICHD 38336 & 41619 & The."— Presentation transcript:

1 Illustration of bootstrapping in the FFSF Daniel Messinger, Marygrace Yale Kaiser, Alan Cobo-Lewis, & Peter Mundy Supported by NICHD & & The Positive Psychology Foundation

2 Events as unit of analysis Unit of association = Patterns of actions (e.g., B1 & B2) B1B2 SMILE GAZE Overlapping behaviors create an expressive signal dependent on how they are patterned in time Beyond duration of co-occurrence

3 Generic Observed Patterns – A BEFORE B. E.g., Smile before Gaze n A smile which begins before and ends within a gaze at parent’s face. – A IN B. E.g., Smile in Gaze n A smile which begins and ends within a gaze at parent’s face. – B BEFORE A. E.g., Gaze before Smile n A gaze at parent which begins before and ends within a smile. – B IN A. E.g., Gaze in Smile n A gaze at parent’s face which begins and ends within a smile.

4 Expressions Gazes SM Take Observed Pattern SM No Smiles Gazes Away Gazes at Mom Smiles SM Separate into Observed Behaviors Time Smile in Gaze Simulation Procedure

5 To Create Simulated Pattern Smile Gaze SM No Smiles Gazes Away Gazes at Mom Smiles SM Observed Behaviors Time Use observed behaviors to create simulated sequences

6 Gaze Observed Pattern SmileSM Z = (Observed – Simulated)/SD S Smile in Gaze! Simulation indicates patterns not due to chance Simulated Random Pattern SM Smile Gaze Time Subtract Repeat 2000 times.

7 Study 1: Early infant communication Facial expressions (smiles & frowns) Vocalizations (non- reflexive vocalizations) Gaze direction (gazing at parent’s face & other) 40 infants at 3- & 6- months of age in modified face-to- face/still-face Facial Expression VocalizationGaze --?-- Yale, Messinger, Cobo-Lewis, et al. (1999; in press, Developmental Psychology) 12 & 40 infants at 3- & 6-months of age in modified face-to-face/still-face

8 Facial expression & vocalization n Facial expressions encompass vocalizations in a pattern that does not change with age or expression - replicated Facial Expression Vocalization

9 Facial expressions and gaze n Facial expressions – especially smiles - begin during gazes at parent’s face – Stronger with age & smile Facial Expression Gaze

10 Vocalization & Gaze n Vocalizations and gazes at parent were not coordinated in time VocalizationGaze --?--

11 Centrality of facial expressions n Facial expressions - both smiles and frowns - begin during gazes at parent’s face n Facial expressions encompass vocalizations n Vocalizations and gazes at parent were not coordinated in time

12 Dynamic formation of patterns n Communicative package is not pre-formed, but emerges through two links n Gaze at parent’s face sets the stage: n for a facial expression n into which a vocalization is likely to be inserted Communicative signal dynamically assembles in real-time Facial Expression VocalizationGaze --?--

13 Development of timing? Smile in gaze  Smile after gaze


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