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MANAGEMENT OF THE ABNORMAL PAP SMEAR. 2001 Bethesda System Squamous Cell Atypical squamous cells (ASC) – Of undetermined significance (ASC-US) – Cannot.

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Presentation on theme: "MANAGEMENT OF THE ABNORMAL PAP SMEAR. 2001 Bethesda System Squamous Cell Atypical squamous cells (ASC) – Of undetermined significance (ASC-US) – Cannot."— Presentation transcript:

1 MANAGEMENT OF THE ABNORMAL PAP SMEAR

2 2001 Bethesda System Squamous Cell Atypical squamous cells (ASC) – Of undetermined significance (ASC-US) – Cannot exclude HSIL (ASC-H) Low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) –Encompassing human papillomavirus (HPV), mild dysplasia, and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 1 High-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) –Encompassing moderate and severe dysplasia, carcinoma in situ, CIN 2, and CIN 3 Squamous Cell carcinoma Glandular Cell Atypical glandular cells (AGC) (specify endocervical, endometrial, or not otherwise specified) Atypical glandular cells, favor neoplastic (specify endocervical or not otherwise specified) Endocervical adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) Adenocarcinoma

3 THE BAD NEWS HPV is VERY COMMON, occurring at least once over a 3-year period in 60% of young women Lifetime cumulative risk is at least 80% The longer HPV is present and the older the patient, the greater the risk of CIN Smoking DOUBLES the risk of progression to CIN 3 in HPV positive patients

4 THE GOOD NEWS Vast majority clear the virus or suppress it to levels not associated w/ CIN 2/3+, and for most women this occurs promptly The duration of HPV positivity is shorter and the likelihood of clearance is higher in younger women Only 1 in 10 to 1 in 30 HPV infections are associated w/ abnormal cervical cytology

5 MORE GOOD NEWS Only 15% of women w/ negative cytology reports and positive HPV will have abnormal cytology within 5 years The risk of cervical cancer in women who do not harbor oncogenic HPV is extremely low The time course from CIN 3 to invasive cancer averages between 8.1 and 12.6 years

6 STILL MORE GOOD NEWS Likelihood of regression to normal: –CIN 1: 60% –CIN 2: 40%

7 TYPE OF TESTING Cytology vs. Cytology + HPV testing –Cytology alone low sensitivity –Cytology + HPV testing much higher sensitivity –HPV testing especially helpful in patients > 30 years old

8 Colposcopy Always biopsy any visible lesion Up to 10% of lesions more sever than anticipated

9 Cytology normal/HPV positive If combined testing is normal, repeat combined testing only every 3 years If pap normal and HPV positive repeat pap in 6-12 months, then colposcopy if still positive ASC - same

10 Atypical Squamous Cells Most commonly reported abnormality Risk of cancer % Risk of CIN 2/3+ 6.4%-11.9% Have the sample HPV tested –If positive, refer for colposcopy (15-27% chance of CIN 2/3+) –If negative, repeat cytology in 1 year (less than 2% chance of CIN 2/3+) Exception: adolescent patients

11 Low Grade SIL Second most common result 83% test positive for high-risk HPV 15-30% risk of CIN 2/3+ at initial colposcopy Recommendation: colposcopy Exception: adolescent? Clearance high/cancer risk low

12 ASC-H HPV in up to 86% CIN 2/3+ in 24-94% How does this category differ from HSIL? –Colpo normal? -> repeat cytology vs. excision 30+ year old patient –HPV testing makes sense as rate of positivity is much lower

13 ASC HPV +/ASC-H/LSIL If colposcopy normal: –Repeat cytology in 6 and 12 months or –HPV testing in 12 months If repeat testing is again abnormal (i.e. ASC or higher or + HPV) colposcopy should be repeated

14 HSIL 70% + CIN 2/3 1-2% invasive cancer Always perform colposcopy –Endocervical assessment (nonpregnant) –Entire vagina should be examined LEEP at colposcopy may be considered

15 What if HSIL colposcopy results are CIN 1 or less? Review of histology and cytology and/or Excision Exception: adolescents –Since the risk of invasive cancer is still extremely low, colposcopy and cytology tests may be repeated at 4-6 months as long as the colposcopy results are adequate and the endocervical curettage is negative

16 If cervical cytology is AGC or AIS The most common significant lesions associated w/ AGC are actually squamous Management should include colposcopy and endocervical sampling –Age 35 and older: include endometrial sampling –Less than 35 if: morbidly obese, oligomenorrhea, abnormal uterine bleeding

17 Atypical Endometrial Cells Always perform endometrial sampling If endometrial sampling is negative -> colposcopy w/endocervical sampling

18 When should endocervical sampling be done? Unsatisfactory colposcopy Ablative therapy contemplated Should be considered in: ASC-H, HSIL, AGC or AIS –May add 5-9% to CIN2/3+ diagnosis NOT in the pregnant patient

19 Initial evaluation of AGC/AIS negative AGC-NOS: follow-up endocervical sampling at 6 month intervals (x4) Alternative: Test for HPV. If negative may repeat cytology and endocervical sampling at one year AGC-favor dysplasia or AIS OR a second AGC-NOS: EXCISION (cold knife conization better than LEEP)

20 What you see is NOT what you get Colposcopic impression of CIN1 correct only 43% of the time Another study showed women with LSIL and colposcopic appearance of CIN1 had CIN 2 or CIN 3 21% of the time after excision Therefore: any visible lesion should be biopsied

21 How should CIN 1 be managed? For most women: observation –Especially the younger patient Two cytology screenings 6 months apart

22 CIN 2 and CIN 3 Management 40% of CIN 2 regresses over 2 years CIN 3 regression: rare Immediate treatment is recommended –Exception: adolescent with CIN 2 Spontaneous clearance more likely Risk of cancer approaches zero

23 Is excision or ablation better? Laser, LEEP, cryotherapy: all the same Perform endocervical sampling if ablation is planned Do not perform ablation if dysplasia on endocervical curettage

24 Management of AIS Excision required: Cold knife conization (CKC) is preferred: –Endocervical sampling w/ the CKC is more predictive of residual disease LEEP is associated with an increase in the rate of positive margins and is not recommended If margins are positive CKC should be repeated –Residual AIS in as many as 80%

25 Management of AIS If margins are negative: risk of residual AIS (26%) and invasive cancer (1.9%) –Therefore hysterectomy is recommended when fertility is no longer desired –If fertility is desired: follow w/ sampling every 6 months Hysterectomy is not appropriate until invasive cancer has been ruled out

26 Follow-up after treatment for CIN For CIN 1: Cytology at 6 and 12 months or HPV testing at 12 months is reasonable For CIN 2/3: Cytology 3-4 times at 6 month intervals or a single Pap + HPV at 6 months. Then annual screening Positive margins may be treated w/ reexcision, but know that 84% remain disease free WITHOUT reexcision at five year follow-up

27 Care and follow-up during/after pregnancy Only the diagnosis of invasive cancer alters management Colposcopy should have as its primary goal the exclusion of invasive cancer ASC or LSIL: colposcopy during pregnancy or 6-12 weeks postpartum Higher grade test results: colposcopy without endocervical sampling. Biopsy only if colposcopic appearance consistent w/ CIN 3, AIS, or cancer Repeat colposcopy each trimester w/ biopsy only if progression of disease is suggested or cytology is suggestive of invasive cancer

28 Last Thing What if the cytology report states “No endocervical cells”? –May repeat in 1 year if routine testing –Repeat soon if for specific indication

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