Presentation on theme: "1.Causes of WWI Immediate Cause----June 28, 1914 Assassination of Franz Ferdinand of Austria Hostile alliances take effect---War declared Central Powersvs.Allied."— Presentation transcript:
1.Causes of WWI Immediate Cause----June 28, 1914 Assassination of Franz Ferdinand of Austria Hostile alliances take effect---War declared Central Powersvs.Allied Powers GermanyGreat Britain Austria/HungaryFrance Ottoman EmpireRussia Trench warfare and the Western Front 3. President Wilson Calls for neutrality = conflicting sympathies US belief = right to trade with all nations Germany and Great Britain violated this policy. notes1
4. From neutrality to war. German policy Unrestricted submarine warfare = USW U-Boat, sunk the Lusitania (May 7, 1915) Zimmerman Note: Jan. 1917 5. April 8, 1917 US declares war on Germany…… Germans violated our trade and neutrality War to end all war The world must be made safe for democracy Side with the Allies notes2
1.President Wilson: The War to End All War War outlook in Jan. 1917 Poor for Allies: Why? U.S. troops in France---American Expeditionary Forces Led by General John J. Pershing US Troops 2. Actions of Wilson and Congress 3. Women in WWI worked in the factories 19 th Amendment----women’s suffrage 4. End of War Nov. 11 th = 11-11-11 = end of the war Germans sign an armistice notes3
1. President Wilson’s 14 Points 2. Treaty of Versailles = Big 4 countries Germany was forced to pay war debts = reparations---$53 billion Remain disarmed Lost all colonies Responsible for war Created new countries 3. Wilson’s Problems at Home Senate rejects Treaty of Versailles Does not join the League of Nations…….Why? Lodge vs. Wilson Draw U.S. into another war Took away Congress’s power to declare war. Americans wanted neutrality notes5
notes6 4. Results of Treaty of Versailles New democracies would fail without US aid Germany: treaty of revenge = leads to WWII 5. Post war adjustments….
1st World War in history Great War or War to End all War Not called WWI until after WWII Total war Involved 60 nations and 6 continents
Cost of War $400 billion $10 million dollars an hour 16 million deaths First war of the Industrial Revolution…… New Weapons vs old tactics of fighting
Franz FerdinandKaiser Wilhem President Wilson Czar Nicholas Gen. John J. Pershing Sen. Henry LodgeSergeant Alvin York Eddie Baron Manfred Valadir Leninn Rickenbacker von Richthofen Central Powers Allied Powers
Nationalism Countries proud of their heritage and culture Similar to patriotismSimilar to patriotism Ethnic groups of similar heritage wanted to free their oppressed brethren and unite their people into one country Germany wanted to expand its culture and political influence throughout Europe.Germany wanted to expand its culture and political influence throughout Europe.
Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his family. Archduke was heir to the throne in the Austrian Hungarian Empire. His assassination June 28, 1914 eventually led to WWI. Garvillo Princip, a Serbian nationalist assassinated the Archduke. He was trying to gain allowances for his fellow Serbs who lived under Austrian rule. Franz Ferdinand’s funeral procession franz
alliances1 Austrian-Hungarian Empire controlled several ethic groups. Serbian nationalists wanted to untie Serbs who lived in the Austrian-Hungarian Empire with Serbia. This led to the assassination of the Archduke Franz Ferdinand. Saravejo
Imperialism France, Great Britain, Germany and Russia were establishing colonies in Africa and Asia economic and political control over other countries……economic and political control over other countries…… these countries were in competition for colonies
Militarism European nations began an arms race as they competed for colonies around the world……
Militarism & Arms Race 187018801890190019101914 94130154268289398 Total Defense Expenditures for the Great Powers [Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy, France, British and Russia] in millions of dollars. 1910-1914 Increase in Defense Expenditures France10% Britain13% Russia39% Germany73% By 1906, President Roosevelt had built the US Navy into the 3 rd largest naval fleet in the world…. By 1906, President Roosevelt had built the US Navy into the 3 rd largest naval fleet in the world…. The Great White Fleet
Mobilization HHome by Christmas! NNo major war in 50 years! NNationalism!
Alliances balance of powerEuropean nations began forming military alliances with one another to maintain a balance of power …….. Triple AllianceTriple Entente Central PowersAllied Powers GermanyGreat Britain Austria-Hungary EmpireFrance BulgariaRussia
alliances1 1.June 28 Assassination at Sarajevo 2.July 28 Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia 3.July 30 Russia began mobilization 4. August 1 Germany declared war on Russia
alliances2 5.August 3 Germany declared war on France 6. August 3 Great Britain declared war on Germany 7.August 6 Russia and Austria/Hungary at war. 8.August 12 Great Britain declared war on Austria/Hungary
Two Armed Camps! Allied Powers Central Powers Great Britain France Russia Italy Germany Austrian- Hungarian Empire Turkey
battle fronts German invasion in August of 1914, through Belgium to conquer France. FrenchBritish Gave French and British militaries enough time to mobilize their army Belgium puts up a strong fight. 1 st Battle of the Marne River 1 st Battle of the Marne River, France and Great Britain stop Germany from capturing Paris. trench warfare France, England and Germany involve itself in trench warfare from 1914 to 1918 German invasion in August of 1914, through Belgium to conquer France. FrenchBritish Gave French and British militaries enough time to mobilize their army Belgium puts up a strong fight. 1 st Battle of the Marne River 1 st Battle of the Marne River, France and Great Britain stop Germany from capturing Paris. trench warfare France, England and Germany involve itself in trench warfare from 1914 to 1918
Stalemate stalemate By September 1914, the war had reached a stalemate, a situation in which neither side is able to gain an advantage. “no man’s land.” When a French and British force stopped a German advance near Paris, both sides holed up in trenches separated by an empty “no man’s land.” Small gains in land resulted in huge numbers of human casualties. Both sides continued to add new allies, hoping to gain an advantage. Modern Warfare Neither soldiers nor officers were prepared for the new, highly efficient killing machines used in WW I. Machine guns, hand grenades, artillery shells, and poison gas killed thousands of soldiers who left their trenches to attack the enemy. As morale fell, the lines between soldiers and civilians began to blur. The armies began to burn fields, kill livestock, and poison wells.
Panama Canal was completed in August of 1914 just a week before WWI began in Europe. Woodrow Wilson became President in 1912. Americans were shocked by the outbreak of war but…………..it was in Europe. NEUTRALUS was officially NEUTRAL
The effect of the war upon the United States will depend upon what American citizens say and do. Every man who really loves America will act and speak in the true spirit of neutrality, which is the spirit of impartiality and fairness and friendliness to all concerned. The people of the United States are drawn from many nations, and chiefly from the nations now at war. It is natural and inevitable that there should be the utmost variety of sympathy. Some will wish one nation, others another, to succeed in the momentous struggle. I venture, therefore, my fellow countrymen, the United States must be neutral in fact, as well as in name, during these days that are to try men's souls. wilson neutrality1
notes2 US believed warring nations It had the right to trade with the warring nations neutrality Warring nations must respect our neutrality freedom of the seas in the freedom of the seas neutrality German submarine warfare and British blockade violated our neutrality
Effects of Allied blockade Central powers 1914, $70 million in trade with Central powers 1916, trade reduced to $1.3 million Allied trade Grew from $825 million to $3.2 billion in same time period debtor creditor WWI transformed the US from a debtor to a creditor nation
The Germans could not match Great Britain's superior navy. Germans introduced unrestricted submarine warfare with U-Boats Germans warned the world they would sink any ship they believed was carrying contraband to Great Britain.
U-Boats By 1918, Germans had sunk 6,500 allied ships. Two types small subs with a crew of 24 larger subs with a crew of 60 44 by 1918
May 7, 1915, the Germans sunk the Lusitania which was British passenger liner. contraband (weapons) Germans believed it was carrying contraband (weapons) to the British. Killed 1,198 civilians including 128 Americans. “unrestricted submarine warfare”. U.S. and other countries outraged towards Germany because of “unrestricted submarine warfare”. international law US believed the Germans had violated international law of targeting civilians
After the sinking of the Lusitania, public opinion of most Americans was to go to war with Germany. Germany promised they would not sink anymore ships unless warning them first and providing safety for civilians. BUT, President Wilson was able “keep us out of war” ….
Sussex Sunk: led to Sussex Pledge in March 1916. Germany promised not to sink anymore ships. war zone X
alliance Mexico is to reconquer the lost territory in New Mexico, Texas, and Arizona If this attempt is not successful, we propose an alliance on the following basis with Mexico: That we shall make war together and together make peace. We shall give general financial support, and it is understood that Mexico is to reconquer the lost territory in New Mexico, Texas, and Arizona. The details are left to you for settlement.... You are instructed to inform the President of Mexico of the above in the greatest confidence as soon as it is certain that there will be an outbreak of war with zimmerman notes Berlin, January 19, 1917 February unrestricted submarine warfare neutral On the first of February we intend to begin unrestricted submarine warfare. In spite of this, it is our intention to endeavor to keep neutral the United States of America.
at the same time, offer to mediate between Germany and Japan. Please call to the attention of the President of Mexico that the employment of ruthless submarine warfare now promises to compel England to make peace in a few months. Zimmerman (Secretary of State) zimmerman notes with the United States and suggest that the President of Mexico, on his own initiative, should communicate with Japan suggesting adherence at once to this plan;
When German submarines sank three American merchant ships in March 1917, Wilson asked Congress for a declaration of war.
The right is more precious than peace war to end all warwar to end all war The world must be safe for democracy. defend human rightsdefend human rights defend our trade neutralityneutrality freedom of the seas violation of international lawviolation of international law
I Dare you to come, 1917 I Dare you to come, 1917……The Kaiser defies American rights, national honor, freedom of the seas and international law………. kaiser defies
The US believed it had the right to trade with the warring nations and they would respect our neutrality…….Didn’t happen! The German submarine warfare and British blockade violated our freedom of the seas and neutrality. sandwich man