Presentation on theme: "WORLD WAR I, 1914 TO 1918 Causes of WWI"— Presentation transcript:
1WORLD WAR I, 1914 TO 1918 Causes of WWI Immediate Cause----June 28, 1914Assassination of Franz Ferdinand of AustriaHostile alliances take effect---War declaredCentral Powers vs. Allied PowersGermany Great BritainAustria/Hungary FranceOttoman Empire RussiaTrench warfare and the Western Front3. President WilsonCalls for neutrality = conflicting sympathiesUS belief = right to trade with all nationsGermany and Great Britain violated this policy.WORLD WAR I, 1914 TO 1918notes1
2Unrestricted submarine warfare = USW 4. From neutrality to war.German policyUnrestricted submarine warfare = USWU-Boat, sunk the Lusitania (May 7, 1915)Zimmerman Note: Jan. 19175. April 8, 1917 US declares war on Germany……Germans violated our trade and neutralityWar to end all warThe world must be made safe for democracySide with the Alliesnotes2
3US ENTERS THE WAR President Wilson: The War to End All War War outlook in Jan. 1917Poor for Allies: Why?U.S. troops in France---American Expeditionary ForcesLed by General John J. PershingUS Troops2. Actions of Wilson and Congress3. Women in WWIworked in the factories19th Amendment----women’s suffrage4. End of WarNov. 11th = = end of the warGermans sign an armisticenotes3
4WWI, THE AFTERMATH 1. President Wilson’s 14 Points 2. Treaty of Versailles = Big 4 countriesGermany was forced topay war debts = reparations---$53 billionRemain disarmedLost all coloniesResponsible for warCreated new countries3. Wilson’s Problems at HomeSenate rejects Treaty of VersaillesDoes not join the League of Nations…….Why?Lodge vs. WilsonDraw U.S. into another warTook away Congress’s power to declare war.Americans wanted neutralitynotes5
54. Results of Treaty of Versailles New democracies would fail without US aidGermany: treaty of revenge = leads to WWII5. Post war adjustments….notes6
6Great War or War to End all War Not called WWI until after WWII 1st World War in historyGreat War or War to End all WarNot called WWI until after WWIITotal warInvolved 60 nations and 6 continents
7Cost of War $400 billion $10 million dollars an hour 16 million deaths First war of the Industrial Revolution……New Weapons vs old tactics of fighting
22LEADERS AND HEROES OF WWI Franz Ferdinand Kaiser Wilhem President Wilson Czar Nicholas Gen. John J. PershingSen. Henry Lodge Sergeant Alvin York Eddie Baron Manfred Valadir Leninn Rickenbacker von RichthofenCentral PowersAllied Powers
23Countries proud of their heritage and culture CAUSES OF WORLD WAR INationalismCountries proud of their heritage and cultureSimilar to patriotismEthnic groups of similar heritage wanted to free their oppressed brethren and unite their people into one countryGermany wanted to expand its culture and political influence throughout Europe.
25ASSASSINATION OF FRANZ FERDINAND Franz Ferdinand’s funeral processionArchduke Franz Ferdinand and his family. Archduke was heir to the throne in the Austrian Hungarian Empire. His assassination June 28, 1914 eventually led to WWI.Garvillo Princip, a Serbian nationalist assassinated the Archduke. He was trying to gain allowances for his fellow Serbs who lived under Austrian rule.franz
26ALLIANCES LEAD TO WWIAustrian-Hungarian Empire controlled several ethic groups.Serbian nationalists wanted to untie Serbs who lived in the Austrian-Hungarian Empire with Serbia.This led to the assassination of the Archduke Franz Ferdinand.Saravejoalliances1
27economic and political control over other countries…… CAUSES OF WORLD WAR IImperialismFrance, Great Britain, Germany and Russia were establishing colonies in Africa and Asiaeconomic and political control over other countries……these countries were in competition for colonies
28CAUSES OF WORLD WAR IMilitarismEuropean nations began an arms race as they competed for colonies around the world……
301910-1914 Increase in Defense Expenditures Militarism & Arms RaceTotal Defense Expenditures for the Great Powers [Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy, France, British and Russia] in millions of dollars.18701880189019001910191494130154268289398Increase in Defense ExpendituresFrance10%Britain13%Russia39%Germany73%By 1906, President Roosevelt had built the US Navy into the 3rd largest naval fleet in the world…. The Great White Fleet
31MobilizationHome by Christmas!No major war in 50 years!Nationalism!
32CAUSES OF WORLD WAR IAlliancesEuropean nations began forming military alliances with one another to maintain a balance of power ……..Triple Alliance Triple Entente Central Powers Allied PowersGermany Great Britain Austria-Hungary Empire France Bulgaria Russia
33ALLIANCES LEAD TO WWI June 28 Assassination at Sarajevo July 28 Austria-Hungary declared war on SerbiaJuly 30 Russia began mobilizationAugust 1 Germany declared war on Russiaalliances1
34ALLIANCES LEAD TO WWI August 3 Germany declared war on France August 3 Great Britain declared war on GermanyAugust 6 Russia and Austria/Hungary at war.August 12 Great Britain declared war on Austria/Hungaryalliances2
35Austrian-Hungarian Empire Two Armed Camps!Allied PowersCentral PowersGreat BritainGermanyAustrian-Hungarian EmpireFranceRussiaTurkeyItaly
37GERMAN INVASION OF BELGIUM battle frontsGerman invasion in August of 1914, through Belgium to conquer France.Gave French and British militaries enough time to mobilize their armyBelgium puts up a strong fight.1st Battle of the Marne River, France and Great Britain stop Germany from capturing Paris.France, England and Germany involve itself in trench warfare from 1914 to 1918
39STALEMATE AND WARFARE Stalemate Modern Warfare By September 1914, the war had reached a stalemate, a situation in which neither side is able to gain an advantage.When a French and British force stopped a German advance near Paris, both sides holed up in trenches separated by an empty “no man’s land.” Small gains in land resulted in huge numbers of human casualties.Both sides continued to add new allies, hoping to gain an advantage.Modern WarfareNeither soldiers nor officers were prepared for the new, highly efficient killing machines used in WW I.Machine guns, hand grenades, artillery shells, and poison gas killed thousands of soldiers who left their trenches to attack the enemy.As morale fell, the lines between soldiers and civilians began to blur. The armies began to burn fields, kill livestock, and poison wells.
40Woodrow Wilson became President in 1912. US was officially NEUTRAL US IN 1914Panama Canal was completed in August of 1914 just a week before WWI began in Europe.Woodrow Wilson became President in 1912.Americans were shocked by the outbreak of war but…………..it was in Europe.US was officially NEUTRAL
41CONFLICTING SYMPATHIES WILSON'S NEUTRALITYThe effect of the war upon the United States will depend upon what American citizens say and do. Every man who really loves America will act and speak in the true spirit of neutrality, which is the spirit of impartiality and fairness and friendliness to all concerned.The people of the United States are drawn from many nations, and chiefly from the nations now at war. It is natural and inevitable that there should be the utmost variety of sympathy. Some will wish one nation, others another, to succeed in the momentous struggle.I venture, therefore, my fellow countrymen, the United States must be neutral in fact, as well as in name, during these days that are to try men's souls.CONFLICTING SYMPATHIESwilson neutrality1
42US POLICY BEFORE WWI US believed It had the right to trade with the warring nationsWarring nations must respect our neutralityin the freedom of the seasGerman submarine warfare and British blockade violated our neutralitynotes2
43Effects of Allied blockade 1914, $70 million in trade with Central powers1916, trade reduced to $1.3 millionAllied tradeGrew from $825 million to $3.2 billion in same time periodWWI transformed the US from a debtor to a creditor nation
44The Germans could not match Great Britain's superior navy. SUBMARINE WARFAREThe Germans could not match Great Britain's superior navy.Germans introduced unrestricted submarine warfare with U-BoatsGermans warned the world they would sink any ship they believed was carrying contraband to Great Britain.
45U-Boats Two types small subs with a crew of 24 larger subs with a crew of 6044 by 1918By 1918, Germans had sunk 6,500 allied ships.
48Germans believed it was carrying contraband (weapons) to the British. SINKING OF THE LUSITANIAMay 7, 1915, the Germans sunk the Lusitania which was British passenger liner.Germans believed it was carrying contraband (weapons) to the British.Killed 1,198 civilians including 128 Americans.U.S. and other countries outraged towards Germany because of “unrestricted submarine warfare”.US believed the Germans had violated international law of targeting civilians
50BUT, President Wilson was able “keep us out of war” …. SINKING OF THE LUSITANIAAfter the sinking of the Lusitania, public opinion of most Americans was to go to war with Germany.Germany promised they would not sink anymore ships unless warning them first and providing safety for civilians.BUT, President Wilson was able “keep us out of war” ….
51XSussex Sunk: led to Sussex Pledge in March Germany promised not to sink anymore ships.war zone
54ZIMMERMAN NOTE Berlin, January 19, 1917 On the first of February we intend to begin unrestricted submarine warfare. In spite of this, it is our intention to endeavor to keep neutral the United States of America.If this attempt is not successful, we propose an alliance on the following basis with Mexico: That we shall make war together and together make peace. We shall give general financial support, and it is understood that Mexico is to reconquer the lost territory in New Mexico, Texas, and Arizona. The details are left to you for settlement....You are instructed to inform the President of Mexico of the above in the greatest confidence as soon as it is certain that there will be an outbreak of war withzimmerman notes
55Zimmerman (Secretary of State) ZIMMERMAN NOTEwith the United States and suggest that the President of Mexico, on his own initiative, should communicate with Japan suggesting adherence at once to this plan;at the same time, offer to mediate between Germany and Japan. Please call to the attention of the President of Mexico that the employment of ruthless submarine warfare now promises to compel England to make peace in a few months.Zimmerman (Secretary of State)zimmerman notes
59WILSON'S WAR SPEECHWhen German submarines sank three American merchant ships in March 1917, Wilson asked Congress for a declaration of war.
60Principles Fought For The right is more precious than peace war to end all warThe world must be safe for democracy.defend human rightsdefend our tradeneutralityfreedom of the seasviolation of international law
61I Dare you to come, 1917……The Kaiser defies American rights, national honor, freedom of the seas and international law……….kaiser defies
62SANDWICH MANsandwich manThe US believed it had the right to trade with the warring nations and they would respect our neutrality…….Didn’t happen! The German submarine warfare and British blockade violated our freedom of the seas and neutrality.