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WORLD WAR I, 1914 TO 1918 Causes of WWI

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Presentation on theme: "WORLD WAR I, 1914 TO 1918 Causes of WWI"— Presentation transcript:

1 WORLD WAR I, 1914 TO 1918 Causes of WWI
Immediate Cause----June 28, 1914 Assassination of Franz Ferdinand of Austria Hostile alliances take effect---War declared Central Powers vs. Allied Powers Germany Great Britain Austria/Hungary France Ottoman Empire Russia Trench warfare and the Western Front 3. President Wilson Calls for neutrality = conflicting sympathies US belief = right to trade with all nations Germany and Great Britain violated this policy. WORLD WAR I, 1914 TO 1918 notes1

2 Unrestricted submarine warfare = USW
4. From neutrality to war. German policy Unrestricted submarine warfare = USW U-Boat, sunk the Lusitania (May 7, 1915) Zimmerman Note: Jan. 1917 5. April 8, 1917 US declares war on Germany…… Germans violated our trade and neutrality War to end all war The world must be made safe for democracy Side with the Allies notes2

3 US ENTERS THE WAR President Wilson: The War to End All War
War outlook in Jan. 1917 Poor for Allies: Why? U.S. troops in France---American Expeditionary Forces Led by General John J. Pershing US Troops 2. Actions of Wilson and Congress 3. Women in WWI worked in the factories 19th Amendment----women’s suffrage 4. End of War Nov. 11th = = end of the war Germans sign an armistice notes3

4 WWI, THE AFTERMATH 1. President Wilson’s 14 Points
2. Treaty of Versailles = Big 4 countries Germany was forced to pay war debts = reparations---$53 billion Remain disarmed Lost all colonies Responsible for war Created new countries 3. Wilson’s Problems at Home Senate rejects Treaty of Versailles Does not join the League of Nations…….Why? Lodge vs. Wilson Draw U.S. into another war Took away Congress’s power to declare war. Americans wanted neutrality notes5

5 4. Results of Treaty of Versailles
New democracies would fail without US aid Germany: treaty of revenge = leads to WWII 5. Post war adjustments…. notes6

6 Great War or War to End all War Not called WWI until after WWII
1st World War in history Great War or War to End all War Not called WWI until after WWII Total war Involved 60 nations and 6 continents

7 Cost of War $400 billion $10 million dollars an hour 16 million deaths
First war of the Industrial Revolution…… New Weapons vs old tactics of fighting

8 world map







15 Trench Warfare

16 Trench Warfare “No Man’s Land”



19 The Zeppelin

20 Flame Throwers Grenade Launchers

21 Poison Gas Machine Gun

Franz Ferdinand Kaiser Wilhem President Wilson Czar Nicholas Gen. John J. Pershing Sen. Henry Lodge Sergeant Alvin York Eddie Baron Manfred Valadir Leninn Rickenbacker von Richthofen Central Powers Allied Powers

23 Countries proud of their heritage and culture
CAUSES OF WORLD WAR I Nationalism Countries proud of their heritage and culture Similar to patriotism Ethnic groups of similar heritage wanted to free their oppressed brethren and unite their people into one country Germany wanted to expand its culture and political influence throughout Europe.

24 4. Aggressive Nationalism

Franz Ferdinand’s funeral procession Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his family. Archduke was heir to the throne in the Austrian Hungarian Empire. His assassination June 28, 1914 eventually led to WWI. Garvillo Princip, a Serbian nationalist assassinated the Archduke. He was trying to gain allowances for his fellow Serbs who lived under Austrian rule. franz

26 ALLIANCES LEAD TO WWI Austrian-Hungarian Empire controlled several ethic groups. Serbian nationalists wanted to untie Serbs who lived in the Austrian-Hungarian Empire with Serbia. This led to the assassination of the Archduke Franz Ferdinand. Saravejo alliances1

27 economic and political control over other countries……
CAUSES OF WORLD WAR I Imperialism France, Great Britain, Germany and Russia were establishing colonies in Africa and Asia economic and political control over other countries…… these countries were in competition for colonies

28 CAUSES OF WORLD WAR I Militarism European nations began an arms race as they competed for colonies around the world……


30 1910-1914 Increase in Defense Expenditures
Militarism & Arms Race Total Defense Expenditures for the Great Powers [Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy, France, British and Russia] in millions of dollars. 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1914 94 130 154 268 289 398 Increase in Defense Expenditures France 10% Britain 13% Russia 39% Germany 73% By 1906, President Roosevelt had built the US Navy into the 3rd largest naval fleet in the world…. The Great White Fleet

31 Mobilization Home by Christmas! No major war in 50 years! Nationalism!

32 CAUSES OF WORLD WAR I Alliances European nations began forming military alliances with one another to maintain a balance of power …….. Triple Alliance Triple Entente Central Powers Allied Powers Germany Great Britain Austria-Hungary Empire France Bulgaria Russia

33 ALLIANCES LEAD TO WWI June 28 Assassination at Sarajevo
July 28 Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia July 30 Russia began mobilization August 1 Germany declared war on Russia alliances1

34 ALLIANCES LEAD TO WWI August 3 Germany declared war on France
August 3 Great Britain declared war on Germany August 6 Russia and Austria/Hungary at war. August 12 Great Britain declared war on Austria/Hungary alliances2

35 Austrian-Hungarian Empire
Two Armed Camps! Allied Powers Central Powers Great Britain Germany Austrian-Hungarian Empire France Russia Turkey Italy


battle fronts German invasion in August of 1914, through Belgium to conquer France. Gave French and British militaries enough time to mobilize their army Belgium puts up a strong fight. 1st Battle of the Marne River, France and Great Britain stop Germany from capturing Paris. France, England and Germany involve itself in trench warfare from 1914 to 1918

38 battle fronts

39 STALEMATE AND WARFARE Stalemate Modern Warfare
By September 1914, the war had reached a stalemate, a situation in which neither side is able to gain an advantage. When a French and British force stopped a German advance near Paris, both sides holed up in trenches separated by an empty “no man’s land.” Small gains in land resulted in huge numbers of human casualties. Both sides continued to add new allies, hoping to gain an advantage. Modern Warfare Neither soldiers nor officers were prepared for the new, highly efficient killing machines used in WW I. Machine guns, hand grenades, artillery shells, and poison gas killed thousands of soldiers who left their trenches to attack the enemy. As morale fell, the lines between soldiers and civilians began to blur. The armies began to burn fields, kill livestock, and poison wells.

40 Woodrow Wilson became President in 1912. US was officially NEUTRAL
US IN 1914 Panama Canal was completed in August of 1914 just a week before WWI began in Europe. Woodrow Wilson became President in 1912. Americans were shocked by the outbreak of war but………… was in Europe. US was officially NEUTRAL

WILSON'S NEUTRALITY The effect of the war upon the United States will depend upon what American citizens say and do. Every man who really loves America will act and speak in the true spirit of neutrality, which is the spirit of impartiality and fairness and friendliness to all concerned. The people of the United States are drawn from many nations, and chiefly from the nations now at war. It is natural and inevitable that there should be the utmost variety of sympathy. Some will wish one nation, others another, to succeed in the momentous struggle. I venture, therefore, my fellow countrymen, the United States must be neutral in fact, as well as in name, during these days that are to try men's souls. CONFLICTING SYMPATHIES wilson neutrality1

It had the right to trade with the warring nations Warring nations must respect our neutrality in the freedom of the seas German submarine warfare and British blockade violated our neutrality notes2

43 Effects of Allied blockade
1914, $70 million in trade with Central powers 1916, trade reduced to $1.3 million Allied trade Grew from $825 million to $3.2 billion in same time period WWI transformed the US from a debtor to a creditor nation

44 The Germans could not match Great Britain's superior navy.
SUBMARINE WARFARE The Germans could not match Great Britain's superior navy. Germans introduced unrestricted submarine warfare with U-Boats Germans warned the world they would sink any ship they believed was carrying contraband to Great Britain.

45 U-Boats Two types small subs with a crew of 24
larger subs with a crew of 60 44 by 1918 By 1918, Germans had sunk 6,500 allied ships.

46 Lusitania ad

47 war zone

48 Germans believed it was carrying contraband (weapons) to the British.
SINKING OF THE LUSITANIA May 7, 1915, the Germans sunk the Lusitania which was British passenger liner. Germans believed it was carrying contraband (weapons) to the British. Killed 1,198 civilians including 128 Americans. U.S. and other countries outraged towards Germany because of “unrestricted submarine warfare”. US believed the Germans had violated international law of targeting civilians

49 Lusitania

50 BUT, President Wilson was able “keep us out of war” ….
SINKING OF THE LUSITANIA After the sinking of the Lusitania, public opinion of most Americans was to go to war with Germany. Germany promised they would not sink anymore ships unless warning them first and providing safety for civilians. BUT, President Wilson was able “keep us out of war” ….

51 X Sussex Sunk: led to Sussex Pledge in March Germany promised not to sink anymore ships. war zone



54 ZIMMERMAN NOTE Berlin, January 19, 1917
On the first of February we intend to begin unrestricted submarine warfare. In spite of this, it is our intention to endeavor to keep neutral the United States of America. If this attempt is not successful, we propose an alliance on the following basis with Mexico: That we shall make war together and together make peace. We shall give general financial support, and it is understood that Mexico is to reconquer the lost territory in New Mexico, Texas, and Arizona. The details are left to you for settlement.... You are instructed to inform the President of Mexico of the above in the greatest confidence as soon as it is certain that there will be an outbreak of war with zimmerman notes

55 Zimmerman (Secretary of State)
ZIMMERMAN NOTE with the United States and suggest that the President of Mexico, on his own initiative, should communicate with Japan suggesting adherence at once to this plan; at the same time, offer to mediate between Germany and Japan. Please call to the attention of the President of Mexico that the employment of ruthless submarine warfare now promises to compel England to make peace in a few months. Zimmerman (Secretary of State) zimmerman notes

56 zimmerman code

57 zimmerman code

58 zimmerman cartoon

59 WILSON'S WAR SPEECH When German submarines sank three American merchant ships in March 1917, Wilson asked Congress for a declaration of war.

60 Principles Fought For The right is more precious than peace
war to end all war The world must be safe for democracy. defend human rights defend our trade neutrality freedom of the seas violation of international law

61 I Dare you to come, 1917……The Kaiser defies American rights, national honor, freedom of the seas and international law………. kaiser defies

62 SANDWICH MAN sandwich man The US believed it had the right to trade with the warring nations and they would respect our neutrality…….Didn’t happen! The German submarine warfare and British blockade violated our freedom of the seas and neutrality.

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