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Florida, Tsunamis, and You The word tsunami is Japanese meaning harbor wave soo-NAH-mee Daniel Noah Warning Coordination Meteorologist National Weather.

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Presentation on theme: "Florida, Tsunamis, and You The word tsunami is Japanese meaning harbor wave soo-NAH-mee Daniel Noah Warning Coordination Meteorologist National Weather."— Presentation transcript:

1 Florida, Tsunamis, and You The word tsunami is Japanese meaning harbor wave soo-NAH-mee Daniel Noah Warning Coordination Meteorologist National Weather Service Forecast Office - Ruskin, FL

2 What is a Tsunami?  A series of long waves created by a disturbance that displaces a large amount of water.  Primarily associated with earthquakes in oceanic or coastal regions.  Landslides, volcanic eruptions, nuclear explosions, and even impacts from objects from outer space (such as meteorites, asteroids, and comets)

3 Wind Waves vs. Tsunamis Wind Generated Waves Tsunami Waves 5-20 seconds between waves 300-600 ft wave length 10 minutes to 2 hours between waves Wave length can be greater than 300 miles

4 What Happens at the Coastline?  May appear as a rapidly rising or falling tide, a series of breaking waves, or even a bore  Strong currents and debris carried by wave add to destructive nature of this inundating flood

5 December 26, 2004 Phuket, Thailand Tsunami Photos by German Tourist Hellmut Issels

6 December 26, 2004 Phuket, Thailand Tsunami Photos by German Tourist Hellmut Issels

7 December 26, 2004 Phuket, Thailand Tsunami Photos by German Tourist Hellmut Issels

8 December 26, 2004 Phuket, Thailand Tsunami Photos by German Tourist Hellmut Issels

9 Tsunami Safety

10 Tsunami Safety All Hazards NOAA Weather Radio  Warns of natural and man made hazards  Alerts you even when you’re sleeping  New radios can be programmed just for your county

11 Tsunami Safety Rules For those on the beach  If you feel the earth shake, move immediately to higher ground, DO NOT wait for a tsunami warning to be announced. Stay away from rivers and streams that lead to the ocean if there is a tsunami.

12 Tsunami Safety Rules For those on the water  Do not return to port when a Tsunami Warning has been issued  Tsunamis can cause dangerous currents in harbors and ports  If you have time, move your vessel to deep water  Contact the harbor authority to verify conditions are safe before returning

13 Tsunami Safety Rules For those on land  Evacuate your house if you live in a hurricane storm surge zone Evacuate vertically if you do not have time to leave the surge zone, move to the highest floor or to the roof Follow the advice of local emergency management and law enforcement officials

14 For More Information http://tsunami.gov

15 Causes of Tsunamis

16 Usually by earthquakes Less commonly by landslides (into the water and completely below the water) Infrequently by volcanic eruptions or explosive decompression of underwater methane deposits Very rarely by a large meteorite impact in the ocean

17 Earthquake Threat Blue = Mid-Ocean Ridges Red = Subduction Zone

18 Earthquakes Anthony Liekens Tsunamis are created when: Seafloor quickly changes shape Water is displaced Waves are formed as the displaced water mass tries to move back

19 Tsunami Animation

20 Tsunami Animation, 12/26/04 Earthquake 9.0 on Richter Scale near Sumatra Over 160,000 fatalities

21 Earthquake & Volcano Threat Active VolcanoesEarthquakes

22 Tsunami Risk by Region 1848-1998 O � Loughlin & Lander

23 Florida’s Risk of Tsunamis

24 Tsunami Risk in Florida Florida’s Atlantic Coast Puerto Rico Trench Cumbre Vieja Volcano in Canary Islands 1755 Lisbon Earthquake Azores-Gibraltar fracture zone Florida’s Gulf Coast and Keys Puerto Rico Trench (minor effect as wave wraps around islands) Large Meteorite into Gulf of Mexico

25 Puerto Rico Trench Michael Count

26 Regional Plate Tectonics Michael Count

27 Slope Failure in the Trench Michael Count

28 Cause of 1918 Tsunami Michael Count Earthquake, 7.5 on Richter Scale

29 Tsunami Propagation Michael Count 0 min 2 min 6 min 9 min

30 Run-up Values Michael Count

31 Tsunami Devastation Report of large withdrawal of water exposing unseen sediment before tsunami struck the shore Wave run-up of approximately 20 feet 116 Deaths Water traveled 100 meters inland in low lying areas, destroying villages and buildings Michael Count

32 Cumbre Vieja Volcano in Canary Islands Benfield Hazard Research Centre of the University College London Worst case scenario Wave height in meters

33 1755 Lisbon Earthquake

34 Azores-Gibraltar Fracture Zone

35 Lisbon Tsunami Travel Times Dr. Charles Mader, http://www.drgeorgepc.com/Tsunami1755Lisbon.html Florida � s Atlantic Coast �� 7-8 hour arrival time �� Estimated 7-10 foot �� Waves every 90 min

36 Tsunamis vs. Rogue Waves

37 Rogue waves are different the Tsunamis but the end result is similar. Rogue Wave Characteristics Unpredictable nature Little is know about the formation May be caused by regularly-spaced ocean swells that are magnified by currents or the atmosphere

38 Daytona Beach Rogue Wave July 3, 1992 at 11:30 PM EDT 50 MPH wind gust at peak of storm 10:35 PM EDT 11:35 PM EDT

39 Daytona Beach Rogue Wave July 3, 1992 10 ft rise at the beach at 11:30 PM EDT 75 minor injuries About 36 vehicles damaged Swamped shoreline for 30 miles, worst was five miles of shoreline near Daytona Beach

40 Tampa to Naples Rogue Wave March 25, 1995 00 UTC10 UTC

41 Tampa to Naples Rogue Wave March 25, 1995 Strong outgoing tide at the mouth of Tampa Bay before an 11 foot rise around 9 AM EST Tide was 1 to 4 feet above normal south of Tampa Bay to Naples (124 miles of shoreline) Carried stingrays and jellyfish on the beach causing people to flee Wave broke about 1 mile offshore

42 How Often Can We Expect Tsunamis & Rogue Waves However, Eastern U.S. has had 40 tsunamis/rogue waves in the last 400 years or an average of one coastal flood event every 10 years Lockridge, Whiteside, and Lander �� Only one Atlantic-wide Tsunami documented (the 1755 Lisbon earthquake) One or two tsunamis each century along the east coast of the U.S.

43 Tsunamis Detection & Warning

44 How Do We Detect Tsunamis Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting on Tsunamis DART Buoy

45

46 Proposed DART Buoy Locations

47 NWS Tsunami Warning Centers  The West Coast and Alaska Tsunami Warning Center in Palmer, Alaska  Alaska south to California �  U.S. Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Coast  The Pacific Tsunami Warning Center in Ewa Beach, Hawaii  Hawaii  A national/international warning center for tsunamis that pose a Pacific-wide threat. �  Caribbean

48 Tsunami Warning Process U.S. East Coast & Gulf of Mexico Interim Method The Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (ATWC) issues a Tsunami Warning if earthquake 7+ on Richter Scale on/near � a coast NWS office in Melbourne, FL receives warning via fax and phone call from the ATWC. NWS Melbourne disseminates warning to coastal NWS Offices via the dedicated Hurricane Hotline Affected coastal NWS Offices issue a Coastal Flood Warning that triggers All Hazards NOAA Weather Radios Emergency Alert System Statement transmitted over � weather wire � to emergency management officials and the media

49 Tsunami Warning Statistics � Tsunami Warning Center in Palmer, AK  Warnings are issued within 15 minutes of earthquake and are based solely on seismic data  The average response time was 6.8 minutes in 2003  Since 1981, 11 regional tsunami warnings have been issued by the WC/ATWC

50 How can I find out if there is a tsunami warning program in my county?

51 Thank you! StormReady & TsunamiReady A National Weather Service Program to Protect Lives http://www.stormready.noaa.gov

52 What is StormReady?  A NWS program for our communities to improve communication and hazardous weather preparedness  Provides community leaders and emergency managers with guidance on how to improve warning and weather preparedness programs

53 Why Do We Need StormReady?  Nearly 90% of all Presidentially declared disasters are weather related  On average there are 500 weather related deaths each year across America  Severe weather causes near $14 Billion in property damage each year. Four hurricanes in 2004 caused $42 Billion!

54 What is TsunamiReady? A part of the NWS StormReady Program A collaborative effort between federal, state, and local emergency management, and the public A method to improve public safety during tsunami emergencies

55 TsunamiReady Objectives Create minimum standard community guidelines for adequate tsunami readiness �� Create minimum standard community guidelines for adequate tsunami readiness �� Encourage consistency in educational materials and response �� Recognize communities that have adopted TsunamiReady guidelines �� Increase public awareness and understanding of the tsunami hazard

56 Thank You!


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