Presentation on theme: "Lesson 98 Battle of Trench to Hudaybiyah.  The Battle of the Trench."— Presentation transcript:
Lesson 98 Battle of Trench to Hudaybiyah
 The Battle of the Trench
There was a treaty of mutual defense between the Muslims of Al-Khazraj, and the Jews of Banu An-Nadîr, who lived nearby Al- Madînah.
The Jews betrayed their treaty since they planned to kill the Prophet (SAWS).
So the Prophet (SAWS) set off to them in the fourth year after Hijrah, until he drove them out of their land.
Allah made the Muslims inherit their lands and homes. They went to live in Khaybar.
Those Jews did not cease their hostilities after that. A group of them went to Makkah.
They met with the leaders of Quraysh. They reached an agreement with them, and with the tribe of Ghatafân, to wage war against the Muslims.
Quraysh prepared for war, as well as those who followed them from Kinânah.
Ghatafân also prepared themselves for war, together with those who followed them from the people of Najd.
They all united to fight the Muslims, totaling an army of 10,000 fighters, with Abu-Sufyân as their general commander.
When the Prophet (SAWS) heard about their gathering, he consulted his companions about what to do to resist them.
Salmân Al-Fârisy (the Persian, RA) suggested digging a trench along the North side of Al- Madînah, which is the direction of entry into the city, so the Muslims dug it.
Quraysh came with the allies and camped behind the trench, facing the Muslim army of only 300 men.
They stayed in this situation, exchanging arrow- fights, for more than twenty days.
The Prophet arranged for night guards on the trench, so that the enemy would not breach it at night. He (SAWS) was guarding the most difficult side of it himself.
When the standoff dragged on for so long, a group of the disbelievers invaded through the trench with their horses.
Some fell in it and broke their necks; others were challenged by some brave Muslims and were killed. This skirmish lasted for a whole day.
 The battle of Banu-Quraydhah
After that, the Prophet (SAWS) learned that the Jews of Banu-Quraydhah, who lived close to Al-Madînah, wanted to break the treaty between them.
So the Prophet recalled five hundred men from his army to guard the women and the children In Al-Madînah.
When the Muslims knew of Banu-Quraydhah's intentions, their fear and concerns increased because the enemy was now surrounding them from the outside and the inside.
Allah Almighty granted His Messenger (SAWS) someone who went through the enemy lines, dividing them through deception and tricks, until they became hopeless and feared each other.
Allah Almighty sent upon them a cold wind on a dark night, which extinguished their fires, and blew away their cooking utensils.
They left that night, and Allah Almighty ended this hardship in which allies from the Arabs and the Jews got together against the Muslims.
This incident occurred between the months of Shawwâl and Thul-Qi`dah of the fifth year A.H.. Six Muslims were martyred and three disbelievers were killed.
When the Prophet (SAWS) returned, he did not take off his armor until he besieged Banu- Qurayzah for their betrayal and for breaking their treaty.
This siege lasted for 25 nights, until they those inside were about to perish.
They found no other way out except to surrender and accept whatever the Prophet (SAWS) ruled.
They agreed to the ruling of their master Sa`d ibn Mu`âdh.
He ruled for the killing of the men, the enslavement of women and children, and for taking over their property.
The men were locked up in the homes of Al- Ansâr until they were executed in special trenches. There were about seven hundred men.
This way, Allah has saved the Muslims from the evil of being neighbors to their enemies. Allah is the All-Mighty, All-Able of Retribution.
 The Expedition of Hudaybiyah and its Treaty
The Prophet (SAWS) stayed in Al-Madînah after the battle of the trench for the rest of the year 5 A.H.
In the sixth year, he set off for Banu-Lihyân, who had killed `Âsim ibn Thâbit and his companions. He found that they had dispersed.
Then, he set off to the tribe of Dhu Qarad in retaliation for their attack on the Prophet’s (SAWS) camels.
The enemy ran away after some light fighting that did not last for long.
Then, he (SAWS) set off to Banu Al-Mustaliq, when he knew that they were preparing to fight him.
The Prophet (SAWS) defeated them and gained from them spoils of money and slaves.
Then, in the month of Thul-Qi`dah of that year (11th month of year 6 A.H.), the Prophet (SAWS) set off to Makkah for `Umrah (minor pilgrimage), and one thousand five hundred of the Muhâjirîn and the Ansâr set off with him.
He (SAWS) took with him the Hady (animals for sacrifice) so that people would know that he did not set out intending war.
The Prophet (SAWS) ordered his companions not to take any weapons with them, except for swords bound in their sheaths, in order not to enter the Holy Mosque with bare swords.
The Prophet (SAWS) traveled with his people until they reached `Asfân, which is a place on the road to Makkah.
Someone came up and told the Prophet (SAWS) that Quraysh decided to stop the Muslims from entering Makkah, and that they had prepared for war.
They also sent out Khâled ibn ul-Walîd with two hundred horsemen to prevent the Muslims from advancing.
So, the Muslims took another route to Makkah from the South of the city, until they reached the valley of Al-Hudaybiyah.
Al-Hudaybiyah is a well near Makkah, after which the valley was named. The Prophet’s camel knelt down there, and he (SAWS) ordered his companions to make camp.
At that time, a messenger from Quraysh came to learn why the Muslims had come. The Prophet (SAWS) told him of his intention.
When the messenger went back to Quraysh, they did not trust him, so they sent out another one who saw the sacrificial animals and heard the Talbiyah (saying: "Labbayka-llâhumma Labbayk" =Allah, I came to answer Your call).
So he went back to Quraysh, and said, “These people came for `Umrah and they should not be prevented.
It is not acceptable that others like (the tribes of) Lakhm, Gudhâm, and Himyar can make the Pilgrimage, while the son of `Abdul-Mutalib (he meant the Prophet PBUH) is forbidden from the House.”
Quraysh did not listen to him and they sent a third messenger who witnessed how deeply the companions of the Messenger (SAWS) respect and love him, so he came back to Quraysh and talked to them about what he saw.
He said, “By Allah, I never saw a king among his people (i.e. so respected and so loved) like Muhammad among his companions.”
So the people discussed the matter together, and decided to prevent the Muslims from entering Makkah this year, but allow them next year.
Then the Prophet (SAWS) sent `Uthmân ibn Affân to them, under the sponsorship (protection) of a man from Banu Ummaya, in order to tell them of his intention.
Ten of the Muslims set off with him to visit their relatives in Makkah. Quraysh said, “Muhammad will never enter upon us by force, and without our permission.”
Quraysh then prevented `Uthmân ibn Affân (RA) and those who accompanied him from returning.
A rumor spread among the Muslims that `Uthmân ibn `Affân (R.A.) was killed.
So the Prophet (SAWS) asked his companions to grant him a pledge of allegiance with the intention of fighting.
They all pledged on fighting. This happened under a tree that was later called the tree of Ar- Ridwân (Allegiance).
This pledge was also called the Pledge of Ar- Ridwân. The polytheists sent out their spies. The Muslims caught twelve of them as prisoners of war.
When Quraysh heard of this pledge, they were worried, so they sent an envoy to the Messenger of Allah (SAWS) to negotiate a reconciliation treaty with him.
After they let go of `Uthmân (RA) and those who were with him, and after the Muslims let go of their prisoners, they agreed with them on four conditions:
No war between the two groups for ten years.
The Messenger of Allah (SAWS) and the Muslims are to return this year without entering Makkah.
The following year, they will enter it without any weapons except swords in their sheaths. The Muslims will be allowed to stay in Makkah for three days after Quraysh leaves it.
Whoever comes to the Muslims from Quraysh should be returned back to them.
Quraysh are not required to return back whoever comes to them from the Muslims.
Anyone who wants to enter into a treaty with the Muslims is allowed to do so.
Anyone who wants to enter into a treaty with Quraysh is allowed to do so.
The Prophet dictated to `Ali ibn Abu-Tâlib who wrote a transcript of that agreement, known as the Treaty of Hudaybiyah.
The Muslims agreed with what the Prophet (SAWS) had agreed to, despite their grief over some of these conditions.
Then the Prophet (SAWS) and the Muslims revoked their 'Umrah, and returned back to Al- Madînah.
The Sûrah of Al-Fat-h (the Victory) was revealed on the occasion of this incident.