Presentation on theme: "World War I (1914-1918) The Great War Europe Changes forever."— Presentation transcript:
World War I ( ) The Great War Europe Changes forever
Intro Video Start at 39 minutes eYQYk
The Ism’s The world had changed and influence had been put on three things 1)Imperialism 2)Militarism 3)Nationalism 1)M.A.I.N.S – Militarism, Alliance System, Imperialism, Nationalism, Significant People
1-Imperialism The movement in the late 19 th and early 20 th century – To obtain land and expand your empire European version of the Manifest destiny – Countries in Europe had laid claim to area’s all over the world
Imperialism and the Balance of Power
1-Issues of Imperialism When nations in Europe claimed their lands it often led to conflicts – Opposing colonizing forces would often fight one another – Boer War – occurred in South Africa between the Dutch and the English
2-Militarism An expanding German army caused other powers in Europe to take notice – An arms race began in Europe – Military power was to be shown through army size and new naval tech.
Navy power before and after Former War shipsDreadnought Class
2-The Dreadnought Germany threatened Britain's greatest claim – the strength of their navy In response to this action, Britain devolved the Dreadnought –(made all other warships obsolete) Britain's navy doubled, as did Germanys, as did France's and so on.
2-Militarism France’s, Germany’s, Britain's, Russia and other European nations standing armies doubled
2- Secret alliances The nation was entangled in alliances that were unknown to other countries – Often made to keep other countries from invading seized land – Scenario.. Japanese-Russo war Great Britain is an ally of both, who do they support?
3-Nationalism Nationalism is the idea that you must band together with people similar to you – The thought that your nation is greater than any other – Combined with militarism, this made tensions high in Europe
Alliance Systems. Go back to 1860 – During American civil war the states of Prussia were waging war trying to unite the German Kingdoms – The succeeded in unifying Germany Destroyed the balance of power in Europe – By 1871 had unified and had become one of the international powers
Alliance System In 1870 German attacked France for territory – From this point on –Germany and France are enemies To protect itself Germany signed a secret alliance treaty with.. – Italy – Austria-Hungary The Three were known as the Triple Alliance
Alliance system Triple alliance caused fear for Russia – How could Germany expand? – Both wanted influence in Southeast Europe Why would this be important for Germany? Russia? – Russia opposed Austria-Hungary Slav’s
Alliance System As a result France and Russia signed – Franco-Russian Alliance Why? Due to the Common interest in opposing Germany and A.H.
Alliance System G.B. Wanted to remain neutral – Naval Race When Germany tried to equal G.B. navy the tensions increased Refused to sign a formal alliance with Russian and France but had friendly understanding – “entente cordiale”
The spark of War Archduke of Austria- Hungary Target of Serbian assassin group – “The black hand” Was touring Bosnian Capital, Sarajevo Franz Ferdinand https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BCTIaii GB4o
Spark of war The black hand was brought in to assassinate the archduke – It took place under the knowledge of Serbian Government – They had hoped that it would start a war Hoped to bring down Austro-Hungarian empire
Spark of War Austria-Hungary was angered by the assassination They decided that Serbia had to be crushed to prevent a Slovak uprising – however
Spark of War A.H. knew that if they attacked Serbia would declare war on A.H. – So they asked for Germany to back their cause -- They agreed – A.H sent an ultimatum List of demands – Austrian control in Serbia – Repayment – Etc…
Sparks of War Germany had made it known that it was going to back A.H – Forced them into the war Russia informed everyone that they were going to back Serbia – They asked for France’s aid – Fearing Germany, France agreed
The War Begins! On August 1 st 1914 Germany Declares war on Russia Aug. 3 rd Germany declares war on France Aug. 4 th Britain declares war on Germany Aug. 6 th A.H. declares war on Russia Aug. 12 th A.H. declares war on GB and France
Kaiser Wilhelm II Leader of Germany during World War One
Von Schlieffen plan Germany’s Ultimate Idea Through a series of invasions they would blitz through France and Capture Paris in a matter of days There were a few problems with the plan however – Russia had mobilized their army faster than Germany expected (had to remove troops from A. to B.)
Von Schlieffen Plan German soldiers were to gather on the French German border and rush to Paris – The thought was eliminate France and focus on Russia A quick defeat would keep Britain out of the war The plan ultimately failed
What are problems with this plan?
World War One As soon as Germany stepped foot in Belgium G.B. Declared war on Germany The Allied Powers (Allies) were formed (GB, France, Russia, (Italy-1915)
Central Powers Germany A.H. Ottoman Empire (Turkey)
Von Schlieffen plan fails Although the plan seemed to work in the beginning, it was impossible for the northern soldiers to keep up with the southern ones Got within 30 miles of Paris but was fought off Now what were the armies to do? – They flanked and dug in
Napoleon tactics Much Like the civil war, Europe still used the “old style of warfare” The idea was to rush the opposition with full frontal attacks Bad idea against machine guns The two sides constantly tried to outflank one another
Race to the Sea The constant flanking moved the war north Multiple battles due to constant interaction Lead to trench warfare
The Warfare The strategy for war had now changed Rather than frontal assaults, it had turned into trench warfare – Why?
Trench Warfare The race to the sea showed the nations that the nature of war had changed – How? They dug themselves into trenches – To avoid what?
A common Trench
Trenches The sole purpose of a trench was it offered protection from – Explosives – Machine gun’s – Enemy line of vision – Poison gas?
Advantages of the Trench It was very effective in protection – For days, months or even years Effectively stopped enemy advances Good communication lines, and ability to move from A to B
Negatives of the Trench To effective at protection – Any advancement lead to massive amount of deaths Were the trenches to effective? Or was it human error? Disease – Pest’s – Filthy living conditions Shell shock
Death Tolls Huge numbers of troops would die as they tried to rush enemy trench Constant barrage of bullets Bodies were left in trenches
Pest and infestation With the dead bodies left to rot, pests began to move into the trenches – Rats*** – Often they were hunted down as a source of food Also for protection for the soldiers
Trench Foot Condition in which someone’s foot is wet for too long. – The skin begins to blister, rot and eventually falls off – Swelling also occurs – If left untreated for too long, amputation is necessary
Louse Small Parasite – Feeds on human blood
Trench Conditions German TrenchAllied Trenches
How did Trench Warfare change the war? 1) caused the war to last much longer than anticipated 2) made the war more violent – How? 3) changed the landscape of Europe forever
New Tech’s Machine Gun – Guns that could fire anywhere from 600 to 1,200 shells in a minute 20 shells a second! Known to cut tree’s down
Tanks The First Tanks were introduced during WW1 Primitive, bulky, and mostly ineffective Usually broke down before it had a chance to go anywhere
Planes Wooden Cloth vehicles – Mainly used to scout – Adapted machine guns TRIED to drop bombs late in the war
America Enters the War Until 1917, America had a very Isolated view of the war – President Wilson urged American's to stay Imperial through all this – Difficult for Americans to do
America choosing sides Americans could not keep their interests out of Europe – They were left with a choice Central Powers Allied Powers? Who do you think a majority of Americans sided with?
Pro British Sentiment Many Americans were very pro-British – Many of Wilsons Cabinet were pro-British – They pushed to aid G.B Great Britain used propaganda to try and influence America into the war
America pulled into the war Germany knew that if they could stop American Trade to G.B. they could force them out of the war – Announced they would sink any vessel in G.B. waters – Angered U.S.A – (Unrestricted Submarine Warfare) What is this?!
The Lusitania British Passenger Liner Entered A war-zone – Fired on by German U-Boat Kills 1,200 passengers (128 americans) Americans viewed it as an act of terrorism not war –but America was very much so angered
Other events The sinking of the Sussex – Another merchant ship sunk by German U-boat Sussex Pledge – Germany promised to no longer sink citizen ships without warning Wanted to keep US out
Zimmerman Telegram Letter intercepted by British intelligence and published in American newspapers – Stated: to Mexico from Germany – 1) Aid us in war with the United States – 2) in doing so, you will be returned lost lands TEXAS, NEW MEXICO, ARIZONA Ultimately pushed America into the war
America Declares War Feb. 1 st 1917 (Germany resumed unrestricted warfare) – Sink 6 American ships in two months April 2 nd, 1917 – America Declares War – War had been fought already for three years
The American Soldier “Doughboy”
Getting America Ready for War Not all Americans were sold on the war – Committee on Public Information (CPI) – Their goal was to sell the war to the American Public Actors, Song writers, Authors and others with a voice were recruited to paint a positive image of war Are the same practices used today?
Troubles at home Espionage (Spying) was a major fear of the USA – Espionage Act (1917) made to allow prison terms to ones found guilty – Sedation Act (1918) made it illegal to speak negatively about the war Or anyone who talked badly about the president! 1,000 convictions
German Americans At this time in history—hard place to live for German-Americans – some were beaten for their heritage – One was lynched for “seeming” disloyal – Other common things changed as well
American Pride Sauerkraut was changed to … Liberty Cabbage Hamburgers were changed to… Salisbury Steak
Limitation of Free Speech Schenk vs. The US – Stated that free speech could be restricted if it posed a danger to America – 1 st amendment states: “Congress shall make no law abridging the freedom of speech” What do you think about this?
America Enters / Russia Leaves When America was deploying, Russia Dropped out of the war – Why? Here is a hint To
Bolsheviks Czar Nickolas II -- former leader of Russia – Abducted his throne (gave up power) Vladimir Lenin (leader of Bolsheviks) takes control of Russian Government – Communist Russia is born
Cont… Signed a treaty with Germany – Treaty of Brest-Litovsk – Gave them land for Germany to remove troops that remained in Russian Territory
Why did America get involved? Yes they wanted to support GB and France, but not the biggest issue – Yes they were attacked – Yes they were plotted against The Biggest reason however was for Economical Reasons – US had so much Invested in GB and France (Trade and Stock)
Effect America had on Europe Ally’s moral was low – America’s entry sparked a fighting sprit – Likewise, lowered the moral of the Central Powers All but spelled doom for Germany and Central Powers Had to do something drastic Germany Makes a final offensive, but ultimately fails
Battle of Argonne Forest German Attack stalled USA and French launch massive counter attack 600K Troops, 40K tons of Supplies, 4K artillery pieces Started on September 26 th, 1918 – Slowly but surely, America and France advanced through German Lines
The War Comes to an End As war raged on the Western Front (France- German boarder) A.H and O.E. Surrender and leaves Germany Alone With a naval Mutiny influence reaching Berlin, an uprising begins Kaiser Wilhelm is forced to step down
Germany Surrenders On the 11 th day, on the 11 th hour, in the 11 th month Germany Surrenders (1918) – How long was the war? Germany Signed an Armistice (cease fire)
A Flawed Peace In January 1919 a peace conference began in Paris to resolve the issue of WW1 The big four were present – 1) USA – Wilson – 2) Great Britain – David Lloyd – 3) France – Clemenceau – 4) Italy – Orlando Germany was not Present – Does this seem fair?
Wilson’s 14 points At the conference President Wilson presented his 14 point plan – Wanted to eliminate the general causes of the war – Disarmament – Freedom of the sea’s The biggest point however was his idea for the –League of Nations
The 14 th point The league of nations was Wilson’s brainchild – Nations would preserve peace – They would also prevent events leading to other wars – And act as protectors of other’s territories
Rejection The conference in Paris ultimately rejected the Wilson’s ideas saying – “it was far to easy on Germany” – And “it did not align with our nations interests” Is this a precursor for anything in history?
Treaty of Versailles Despite Wilsons hopes, Germany signed a document that was far to harsh than he preferred Under the treaty – Germanys army was stripped – They had to pay reparations (33 Billion) – Made Germany take blame for the war (in hindsight—worst part of the treaty) Why?
Broken Peace This treaty is what lead Germany to allowing A Fascist government to take control in the 30’s It belittled Germany, it caused a lot of resentment Resulted in 10+ countries being formed in Europe – Poland – Czechoslovakia
Effect the War had on America After the war was over the government released control of the economy they had taken – Rationing ended – Capped prices ended Companies began to raise prices and produce more goods – What would this cause?
Effects By 1919 Prices had risen by 15% – Increased the cost of living (Clothes, Food, Shelter and other essentials)
Inflation leads to strikes Seattle General Strike – Shipyard workers *more money less hours* – Was a General Strike Workers of the city, not just the industry went on strike – Paralyzed the city Americans hated it (COMMON Communist action)
Strikes – Boston Police Strike 75% of Boston's Police force walked out on the job – Lead to wide spread rioting and chaos – When Workers tried to return, Police Commissioner refused to hire them back – Calvin Coolidge gained political notoriety by solving conflict
Racial Unrest White and Black Soldiers—and men—were competing for jobs – Tensions were high between the two Over 20 Racial riots in 1919 In Chicago a riot was started that killed 38 people/ 15 white – 23 Black
The Red Scare American’s viewed Communist as enemies – “seemed” unpatriotic Many Americans accused immigrants for starting riots in the name of communism (Communist International) – organization for coordinating communist activities in other countries
Red Scare Wide Spread fear that “Reds” were trying to take over America Wide spread bomb attacks to place in America One of which took place on US Attorney General Mitchell Palmer
Palmer Raids Palmer established special division – Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Focused their actions on Radical organizations and immigrants 500 Deported
Palmer Raids Failed to turn up any hard evidence Used “dirty cop” techniques – Failed to use warrants and disregarded rights
End of Progressivism After Wilsons tenure America elected Warren Harding on the ideas of – Returning America back to “Normalcy” This idea ends the progressive age