Presentation on theme: "World War I The War to End All Wars 1914 - 1918 MAIN Causes of War M ilitarism – Buildup of armed forces. Preparing for war. A lliance System – Agreements."— Presentation transcript:
World War I The War to End All Wars
MAIN Causes of War M ilitarism – Buildup of armed forces. Preparing for war. A lliance System – Agreements or promises by a country to help defend other countries I mperialism – Trying to build an Empire. N ationalism – Having pride in your country and willing to defend it.
MAIN Causes of War Militarism – By 1890 most European Countries had large armies ready to assemble quickly. Alliances – Triple Alliance (Formed in 1882) Members: Germany – Austria / Hungary – Italy Problem – Triple Alliance had a treaty w/ Russia. Russia and Austria were bitter rivals for control of the Balkans. – Triple Entente (Formed in 1907) France – England – Russia Formed as a result of German aggression towards Russia. Problem – Borders not aligned geographically Imperialism – Competition for resources in Africa and Asia Rise of Nationalism – Intense Rivalries – Competition for Resources – Territorial Disputes
Crisis in the Balkans Serbia – Had the desire to annex the Balkans into one country. (Most of these countries were native Slavs.) Austria – Hungary – Had the desire to annex all of the Balkans. Had support of Germany and annexed Bosnia in Russia – Supported Serbia’s quest to unify the Balkans into one nation. Offered Serbia full support but backed down when Germany supported Austria – Hungary.
The Spark! Leader of Austria – Hungary Archduke Franz Ferdinand assassinated! – June 28, 1914 Killed by a member of “The Black Hand” secret society with the intent on freeing Bosnia from Austrian rule. Austria-Hungary uses this action to punish Serbia. With German support, Austria-Hungary presents Serbia with an ultimatum. – July 23, 1914
A Disastrous Chain of Events July 28, 1914 – Austria – Hungary declares war on Serbia. Russia vows to protect Serbia and mobilizes troops. August 1, Germany views this as an act of aggression and declares war on Russia. August 3, 1914 – Germany declares war on France. Germany enacts the Schlieffen Plan and invades Belgium, a neutral country, to get to France. August 4, 1914 – Britain declares war on Germany for violating Belgium’s neutrality. Italians change their alliance to the Triple Entente nine months after the war began, claiming they did not agree with Germany’s invasion of Belgium.
The Schlieffen Plan German Strategy to win the war quickly. Named after it’s creator General Schlieffen. Plan – Sweep west and defeat France quickly with a surprise attack. – Return east after defeating France to defeat a weaker Russian army. – Had to invade Belgium due to time constraints after Belgium refused to get involved.
When Battle Plans Fail: Stalemate Plans Fail – Plans are based on false assumptions of enemy strength – Schlieffen invasion starts well, ends bad Belgium and France do not have the infrastructure to support German advance – Battle of the Marne 600 taxi cabs rush French & British forces to the battle Hold line 40 miles from Paris Stalemate on the Western Front
Map of World War I Alliances
Western Front Trench Warfare on French- German Boarder – 500 miles of Trench from North Sea to the Alps – 1 – 10 miles across – Battles Verdun, Marne, Somme Valley German Hindenburg Line German Hindenburg Line
Trench Warfare – Forced by new weapons into the ground – 3ft to 10 ft trenches 100 – 1000yds. apart – Land in Middle is called “No Mans Land” – System of attack – counter attack – Fortified by machine guns, gas, artillery and cement
Eastern Front Russia has initial success against Austria- Hungary. Germany and Austria-Hungary regain territory and push Russia back to their borders. Russia suffers severe losses and will eventually fall to revolution in 1917.
World War I Weapons Tank – Armor protection, mobile gun, unreliable in WWI Submarine – German U-Boat, Torpedoes, Shipping Blockades Poison Gas – Mustard Gas & Chlorine, Choked-Blinded & Killed Machine Gun – Caused Trench warfare, Two men could operate Air Plane – Air recon., Bombing, Dog Fighting
America Joins the War Sinking of the Lusitania Zimmerman Telegram
U.S.A. Enters the War In response to unrestricted submarine warfare by the Germans. Germans accidently sank a British Passenger ship in April 2, 1917 – U.S. enters the war on the side of the Allies.
Total War WWI becomes a Total War! – All national resources go to support the War effort. – Governments utilized propaganda to drum up support – Women become major contributors to the war effort back home. War factory workers – making uniforms, bullets, etc.
Armistice! November 11 th 1918 European Tragedy The Lost Generation – 37% of European Males between Died – Deaths Germany 2.1 Million France 2 Million Russia 1.7 Million Austro-Hung. 1.5 Million Italy 500, Billion in Economic Losses
World War I Casualties
A Flawed Peace Treaty of Versailles – France and Britain impose harsh penalties on Germany Must take full responsibility for war Pay 33 Billion to allies Restrictions on German Army and Navy Took traditional German Lands Wilson’s Fourteen Point Plan – Rejected as to forgiving to Germans – Point 14 a League of Nations accepted by Europe US Congress refuses to accept the League of Nations