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World War I Libertyville HS. In 1914, Europe was a powder keg… Europe was an armed camp –France vs. Germany –Austro Hungary vs. Russians Principles of.

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Presentation on theme: "World War I Libertyville HS. In 1914, Europe was a powder keg… Europe was an armed camp –France vs. Germany –Austro Hungary vs. Russians Principles of."— Presentation transcript:

1 World War I Libertyville HS

2 In 1914, Europe was a powder keg… Europe was an armed camp –France vs. Germany –Austro Hungary vs. Russians Principles of industrialization applied to war –Massive armies –Railroad networks (mobilization) –Factories for weapons

3 Long Range Causes of WWI Militarism –Large standing armies –Arms race (ex. battleships) –Quick mobilization Alliances –“Triple Entente” Great Britain, France, Russia –Triple Alliance Germany, Austro Hungary, Ottoman Empire

4 Long Range Causes of WWI Imperialism –Quest for colonies brought conflict –Ex: Berlin Conference / Africa Nationalism –Intense love of country –Created competition –National rivalries developed over territory (Russia vs. Austro Hungary; Germany v. France)

5 Short Term Cause of WWI Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand –Heir to Austro-Hungary throne –Gavrilo Princip (Black Hand) –AH: declared war on Serbs –Russia declared war on AH –Chain reaction of war declarations, due to alliances –Map to show beginning of warMap

6 “The German Right Hook” Germans strike first –Schlieffen Plan (1905) Plam to avoid a 2 front war 90% of German army = attack through Belgium 5% hold Russian border 5% defend French border –Later changes to plan Driven by Nationalism Weakened R. hook Strengthened defenses

7 Schlieffen Plan, in Action Schlieffen plan failed French mobilized too quickly! Right hook slowed down by British, in Belgium; too weak to finish beyond Paris German defenders of A-L too strong

8 War in Europe – the West Triple Entente = French and British Triple Alliance = Germans Trench Warfare –300 mile long system of defensive ditches dug from Swiss border to North Sea

9 “Over the Top” The Myth The Reality

10 “No Man’s Land”

11 In the East Main combatants –Triple Entente = Russia –Triple Alliance = Austrians (& Germans) Few trenches; instead, a war of maneuver

12 WWI in SW Asia Main Combatants –Triple Entente = Britain and it’s empire (ANZAC) –Triple Alliance = Ottoman Empire Allied goal was a “Third Front” to drain German / Austrian troops from other theaters

13 Unsuccessful: Gallipoli Assault on the Dardanelles, by British and ANZAC troops Slaughter, on both sides –About 250k casualties on each side (stalemated)

14 Successful: Lawrence of Arabia British officer who welded Arabians into army against Turks Hit and run raids on horses, camels Eventually took most of SW Asia for the British

15 1917-18: End of WWI In East, Russian Communist Revolution in October 1917 took Russians out of war –Freed up 100,000s of German troops for Western Front –Russian Soviets made peace w/ Germans in 1918

16 End of WWI, Western Front American Entered war, 1917 –Americans entered war just as British, French troops reached breaking point –Fresh soldiers, equipment critical to Triple Entente’s success

17 End of WWI, Western Front Germans attempted to win it all at the Somme –After initial success, offensive ground to a halt –Germans set up for big losses after overextending army

18 Collapse of Central Powers Bulgarians signed armistice (peace treaty) first, in 9/18 Ottomans surrendered 10/30/18 Austrians knocked out on 11/3/18 German state underwent revolution, overthrowing Kaiser, and became republic on 11/9/18

19 Collapse of Central Powers On 11-11-18, at 11 am, Germany signed armistice to end fighting Armistice signed in railroad car in France Peace treaty signed in Versailles in July, 1919

20 Casualties of Triple Entente CountryCivilian Deaths Military Deaths Total DeathsTotal Wounded Great Britain109,000886,939995,0001.6 million France300,0001,397,8001.7 million4.2 million Russia1.5 million1.8 to 2.2 million 3.3 to 3.7 million 3.7 to 4.9 million United States757116,708117,500205,690 All Entente Countries 3.7 million5.7 million9.4 million12.8 million

21 Treaty of Versailles Required Germany to pay massive war reparations to allies –Germany couldn’t pay, so borrowed $ from USA –German economy collapsed (hyper inflation) as the DM became worthless Treaty blamed Germans for the war (“War Guilt Clause”)

22 Treaty of Versailles Treaty caused bitter feelings in Germany –“Stabbed in the back” theory: no foreign troops on German soil! –Nationalist parties came to power in Weimar Republic –Example: National Socialist Workers Party, aka Nazis

23 Machine Guns Water cooled, to avoid overheating Interlocking fields of fire MG gunner responsible for 60 degree arc in front of their position Where multiple MGs “fields of fire” overlap, referred to as a “kill zone”

24 Poison Gas  Caustic agent that blistered external tissue or damaged internal organs  Many more injuries than deaths, from poison gas  Needed gas mask for protection from gas attacks

25 Poison Gas CountryFatalNon-fatal Russia50,000400,000 Germany10,000190,000 France 8,000182,000 United Kingdom 8,000181,000 Austria-Hungary 3,000 97,000 USA 1,500 71,500 Italy 4,500 55,000 Totals85,000 1,176,500

26 Trench foot


28 Barbed Wire


30 Artillery One of the most deadly weapon systems of WWI Shells up to 1500 lbs, 5 feet tall Types of shells fired High explosive Armor piercing (to attack trench systems) Gas

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