2 The existence of “Africanity,” or widely shared customs across many parts of Africa by 1450, is probably best explained byThe lack of geographic obstacles to travel across the continentPowerful centralized kingdoms in early African historyThe Bantu migrationsEarly trade contacts across the Sahara DesertStrong native religions
4 Ibn Battuta’s detailed 14th-century written account is an important source of information about China during the rule of Kubilai KhanLife in Islamic landsThe lives of ordinary peasants in central Asia and the Middle EastDemographic changes in Eurasia as the result of the spread of diseaseTechnological innovations that spread from east Asia to Europe along the Silk Road
6 Which of the following characterized political systems in Sub-Saharan Africa and southeast Asia during the late 19th century?They were almost all ruled by hereditary monarchs.Most had established democracies.Most were authoritarian, but had legislatures that shared some powers with the chief executive.Most were under colonial rule.They were characterized by weak central governments that tried to exert power over fragmented groups.
8 One characteristic that the American Declaration of Independence and the French Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen had in common was that bothEmphasized liberty more than equalityDenounced nationalismAffirmed the natural rights of citizensAffirmed the rights of hereditary monarchsEndorsed equal rights for women
12 The 19th-century independence movement in Brazil was different from independence movements in Mexico and Gran Colombia becauseBrazilian elites were more afraid of slave revolts than were the elites in Mexico and Gran ColombiaFew elites in Brazil were influenced by Enlightenment ideasBrazil did not have a well-developed class of elitesThe movement was ultimately unsuccessful in BrazilBrazilians did not have a written constitution; Gran Colombia and Mexico did
13 (A) Brazilian elites were more afraid of slave revolts than were the elites in Mexico and Gran Colombia
14 Which of the following was NOT an innovation associated with the Industrial Revolution in the 19th century?Mass productionThe cotton ginMovable typeThe spinning jennyThe steam engine
18 “The cult of domesticity” is a 19th-century phrase that describes the Insulated world of middle-class women in industrialized societiesHome life of European peasantsUrban working class in industrialized societiesTraditional values of women in east AsiaSystem of producing goods by hand at home
19 (A) Insulated world of middle-class women in industrialized societies
20 Which broad ideology in 19th-century Europe was reinforced by the action of the Congress of Vienna in 1815?LiberalismMarxismNationalismRegionalismConservatism
22 “The Young Turks” were motivated to form and take action by their belief in A religious state in TurkeyTurkish nationalismThe need to restore the power of the Ottoman sultanTurkey’s need to join the European UnionNon-violent resistance to European domination
24 After World War II the hegemony of western Europe was broken and replaced by Hegemony of supranational organizationsHegemony of Japan and ChinaCompetition between Russia and countries of the Middle East for controlCompetition between the United States and the Soviet UnionCooperative hegemony of the United States and Great Britain
25 (D) Competition between the United States and the Soviet Union
26 One important impact of World War II on the African continent was Colonization by European powersA Substantial reduction in overall populationThe establishment of many new communist countriesDecolonizationThe strengthening of national militaries
28 The policies of Soviet leader Joseph Stalin emphasized The spread of international communismCollectivization of agriculture and industrializationMore equal opportunities for peasants and city workersThe purification of Marxist doctrinesWesternization and cooperation with international organizations
29 (B)Collectivization of agriculture and industrialization
30 Which of the following 20th-century ideologies was directly supportive of equality between men and women?CommunismFascismSelf-determinationProtectionismAppeasement
34 Which of the following explanations for the lack of development in a modern country is most likely based on dependency theory?The political and economic leaders are corrupt.Traditional values hamper development.The country has not enlisted the aid of a more developed country.The country has been blocked by the greed of more developed countries.The county has few natural resources, and those that it has are poorly used.
35 (D) The country has been blocked by the greed of more developed countries.
36 Which of the following did NOT live during the 19th century? Peter the GreatNapoleon BonaparteJames WattCharles DarwinCixi
40 The concept of private property first came about as a result of Neolithic RevolutionDevelopment of the first citiesOrganization of the earliest civilizationsFeudalistic ties in medieval EuropeDevelopment of capitalism
42 The philosophies of the Ancient Greeks, such as Aristotle and Plato, were based most directly on theirBelief in polytheistic religionFear of dangers in the natural worldEmphasis on secularismSupport of military powerReliance on feelings and emotions
48 Which of the following is an accurate comparison of the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire? Agriculture was a more important component of the economy during the Empire.The Senate had more real governing power during the Republic.Military success was more important during the Empire.Peasants come into conflict with wealthy aristocrats over land ownership during the time of the Republic, but not during the Empire period.The succession to leadership was determined by heredity under the Empire but not during the time of the Republic.
49 (B)The Senate had more real governing power during the Republic.
50 In the period between 600 and 1450 C. E In the period between 600 and 1450 C.E., the interregional impact of nomadic movementsWas not as great as it had been during the Classical EraWas significant, but not as great as in later erasWas more important in the Western Hemisphere, but not in the Eastern HemisphereReached its greatest extent in world historyWas minimal, as it generally had been throughout world history
51 (D) Reached its greatest extent in world history
52 The lateen sail was an important technology for travelling across the Indian Ocean because Its square shape meant that it picked up more ocean breezesIt was more durable than most other sailsIt worked best when combined with tiers of oarsIt was especially suited for short distance travelIts shape made maneuvering the monsoon winds possible
53 (E) Its shape made maneuvering the monsoon winds possible
54 The table supports the fact that the vast majority of slaves were traded to areas where the economy was dominated byGold and silver minesTobaccoCorn and beansCottonSugar
56 Although the political organization of early medieval Europe was decentralized and fragmented, the most important “glue” that provided structure and order wasThe code of honor among nobles and knightsThe extensive trade systemParliamentary organizationThe Roman Catholic ChurchA common language and culture
58 Despite the differences between them, which of the following did the Byzantine Empire and the early Islamic caliphates have in common?All were Islamic.None had strong centralized governments.None relied on a strong military to keep their empires strong.All had only limited literary and artistic accomplishments.In all, both political and religious power was concentrated in the ruler’s hands.
59 (E)In all, both political and religious power was concentrated in the ruler’s hands.
60 The Inca and Aztec societies were different in that The Inca had a large army; the Aztecs did notThe Aztecs had a written language; the Inca did notThe Inca diet was based on corn and beans; the Aztec diet was based on potatoes and tomatoesThe Aztecs built sophisticated public buildings; the Inca did notThe Aztecs used animals as beasts of burden; the Inca did not
61 (B) The Aztecs had a written language; the Inca did not
62 Neo-Confucianism was created during the Song Era in China to ease the growing tension between Confucianism andDaoismShintoismBuddhismHinduismLegalism
64 For its subject matter, The Tale of Genji, the first novel to be written in Japanese, focused on The lives of the nobility in the emperor’s courtOrdinary Japanese peasantsThe adventures of the shogun and samuraiJapanese encounters with westernersLife inside a Buddhist monastery
65 (A)The lives of the nobility in the emperor’s court
66 Which of the following is an accurate statement regarding the long-term influence of the Byzantine Empire after it fell?Its religion and many customs influenced the development of Russia.Constantinople remained as a primarily Christian city.Its territories remained united for many centuries.It set the example for later civilizations of separation of church and state.It provided a long-lasting common language for all eastern Europeans.
67 Its religion and many customs influenced the development of Russia.
68 The structure pictured in the photograph was built by the people of Ancient EgyptTeotihuacánThe Inca EmpireHan ChinaThe Mauryan Empire
70 One difference in the relationships between European settlers and Amerindians in Latin America and North America was that in Latin AmericaAmerindians were usually pushed out of places Europeans wanted for settlementSocial classes were generally less hierarchicalFew efforts were made to convert natives to ChristianityEuropeans were more likely to settle in rural areasMany more Amerindians were forced into labor by Europeans
71 (E)Many more Amerindians were forced into labor by Europeans
72 The hold that the Roman Catholic Church had on European society was significantly weakened during the 16th century byThe Mongol invasionsThe Protestant ReformationIslamic invasions of Spain and FranceThe Italian RenaissanceA loss of church lands due to financial mismanagement
74 During what period in world history did sea-based powers rise in influence in contrast to most land-based powers, which either lost influence or stayed the same?The Classical Era (1000 B.C.E. – 600 C.E.)600 – 1450 C.E.1450 – 1750 C.E.1750 – 1914 C.E.1914 C.E. – Present
78 The Mercator projection map was tailored to aid Explorers as they circumnavigated the globe by going south from EuropeTraders on the Indian Ocean trade circuitsOverland travelers on the Silk RoadEuropean traders on the Atlantic OceanInland explorers of North and South America
80 One disadvantage of the Mercator projection is that it distorts the Size of land masses, particularly those far away from the equatorShapes of land massesDistance between two different points on the globeSize of the oceans, particularly the areas close to the equatorShapes of oceans
81 Size of land masses, particularly those far away from the equator
82 One purpose of Zheng He’s voyages in the early 15th century was to Find a trading route to the Western HemisphereReassert China’s power after the demise of the Yuan DynastyConquer lands around the Indian Ocean basinFind and sink the Portuguese ships that were stealing Chinese tradeFind new converts to Confucianism
83 (B) Reassert China’s power after the demise of the Yuan Dynasty
84 One reason that personalist leaders have had more political influence in Latin America than in North America is thatLatin American leaders generally have been more charismatic than North American leadersLatin American leaders are not directly elected by the people; North American leaders areLatin American leaders were more likely to come from ordinary backgrounds than North American leadersLatin American leaders were more likely to be both political AND religious leadersLatin America was slower to develop stable political institutions than North America
85 (E)Latin America was slower to develop stable political institutions than North America
86 Ever since Canada became a self-governing political system, an important problem for establishing and maintaining Canadian identity has beenThe significant French minority living primarily in QuebecThe inability of the British government to stay out of Canadian affairsLack of transportation systems to tie people on the East Coast to those on the West CoastA centralized government that gives little authority to the provincesIts open immigration policy that allows almost anyone to settle in Canada
87 The significant French minority living primarily in Quebec
88 Which of the following was a common goal of both Peter the Great and Catherine the Great for Russia? Freeing the serfsExpanding the country’s bordersPreserving Slavic customs above all othersBreaking the power of Russian army and naval leadersRecognizing the rights of ethnic minorities to self-rule
90 The plague Toxic gases Opium Food from the Americas Lead “…this poison has spread far and wide in all the provinces. You, I hope, will certainly agree that people who pursue material gains to the great detriment of the welfare of others can be neither tolerated by Heaven nor endured by men…Heaven is furious with anger, and all the gods are moaning with pain!”The “poison” that Lin Zexu refers to in his 1838 letter to Queen Victoria excerpted above wasThe plagueToxic gasesOpiumFood from the AmericasLead
92 “The cult of the emperor” was a campaign to glorify the Japanese emperor by the Fujiwara family during the Heian EraShogun during the Tokugawa ShogunateOligarchs during the Meiji RestorationMilitary leaders during World War IMilitary leaders during World War II
98 The nature of the warfare fought in the area called the “Western Front” is best described as Trench warfareBlitzkriegA combination of infantry and horse brigadesA combination of submarine and tank warfareScorched earth warfare
100 Which of the following regional organizations had most successfully come to control the money supply of its member states?European Union (EU)North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)Organization of American States (OAS)Organization for African Unity (OAU)
102 Which of the following is the BEST explanation for why Germany remained divided into two countries from 1945 till 1989?Germans could not agree on the type of democracy they would form.The cost of rehabilitating Germany after World War II was so great that it made sense to split the responsibility between the two superpowers.Disagreements erupted between the U.S. and the Soviet Union over Germany’s new capital city.France insisted that West Germany should fall under its control since Germany had occupied France during World War II.Cold War politics settled in, with West Germany establishing a democratic government, and East Germany establishing a communist government.
103 (E) Cold War politics settled in, with West Germany establishing a democratic government, and East Germany establishing a communist government.
104 Passive resistance is a method employed in a 20th-century independence movement by Ho Chi MinhMohandas GandhiGamel Abdel NasserFidel CastroSalvador Allende
106 “All the great civilizations of the past died out because contamination of their blood caused them to become decadent…In other words, in order to protect a certain culture, the type of human who created the culture must be preserved. But such preservation is tied to the inalterable law of necessity and the right of victory of the best and the strongest…”The excerpt above was written byWinston ChurchillMustafa KemalV.I. LeninJoseph StalinAdolf Hitler
108 “All the great civilizations of the past died out because contamination of their blood caused them to become decadent…In other words, in order to protect a certain culture, the type of human who created the culture must be preserved. But such preservation is tied to the inalterable law of necessity and the right of victory of the best and the strongest…”The philosophy expressed in the excerpt was used to justify thePurge of kulaksRussian Revolution of 1917Independence movements of the 1950s and 1960sHolocaustUse of the atomic bomb in 1945
110 The Brezhnev Doctrine was (A) The USSR’s official protest against U.S. conduct in Vietnam(B) The USSR’s denunciation of Maoist China, as the Sino-Soviet split worsened(C) The USSR’s condemnation of NATO’s nuclear-arms buildup(D) The USSR’s formal outlawing of all dissident activity within its borders(E) The USSR’s ideological justification of its military intervention in Czechoslovakia
111 (E)The USSR’s ideological justification of its military intervention in Czechoslovakia
112 What was Jawaharlal Nehru’s overall policy direction for India? (A) To put Gandhi’s dream of a spiritually pure, nontechnological India into action(B) To cement a firm military alliance between India and the United States(C) To modernize, secularize, and democratize India(D) To gain more territory for India at the expense of China(E) To create a theocratic regime governed by Hindu principles
113 (C)To modernize, secularize, and democratize India
114 What Marxist regime devastated Cambodia, killing well over a million people? (A) The Khmer Blanc(B) The Sihanouk Serpents(C) The Angkor Brigade(D) The Khmer Rouge(E) The Viet Cong
118 Why did apartheid in South Africa end during the 1990s? (A) White leaders began to realize how unjust the policy really was.(B) The African National Congress called for its dismantling.(C) It never succeeded in segregating Africans from whites.(D) It had succeeded in its goals by them.(E) White leaders decided that the policy was hurting the country’s economy and international reputation
119 (E)White leaders decided that the policy was hurting the country’s economy and international reputation
120 In which of the following sequences are Soviet leaders placed in the correct chronological order, according to the years they ruled?(A) Stalin, Lenin, Brezhnev, Khrushchev(B) Khrushchev, Lenin, Stalin, Brezhnev(C) Brezhnev, Stalin, Khrushchev, Lenin(D) Lenin, Khrushchev, Stalin, Brezhnev(E) Lenin, Stalin, Khrushchev, Brezhnev
122 Reza Shah Pahlavi of Iran was similar to Mustafa Kemal of Turkey in that he (A) Was a democratic ruler(B) Proclaimed himself sultan(C) Secularized his country(D) Turned his country into a theocracy(E) Introduced a bill of rights
128 Enlightenment thought is best characterized by which of the following? (A) A complete rejection of religious faith(B) A conviction that logic and reason were capable of solving social and political problems(C) Active advocacy of the rights of women to vote(D) Support of the established political order(E) A deep faith in religious principles
129 (B)A conviction that logic and reason were capable of solving social and political problems
130 Which of the following characterized the politics of the Tokugawa shogunate? (A) Rigid social stratification backed by a dictatorial government(B) A gradual opening of Japanese economic and intellectual life to the outside world(C) Ruthless extermination of political enemies and racial minorities(D) A high degree of social mobility(E) A move toward limited forms of participatory democracy
131 (A) Rigid social stratification backed by a dictatorial government
132 Timbuktu was renowned for its (A) Gold and its role in opposing the slave trade(B) Salt reserves and Islamic scholarship(C) Large harbor(D) Glass and ceramic architecture(E) Many Gothic churches
136 The Grand Canal joins which two major rivers in China? (A) The Yellow and the Yangtze(B) The Yellow and the Ganges(C) The Indus and the Mekong(D) The Yangtze and the Volga(E) The Tigris and the Nile
140 How did women in small communities of sub-Saharan Africa tend to be treated? (A) They were seen as political equals.(B) They were valued as fieldworkers and for educating children.(C) They were treated as goddesses.(D) More women served as chiefs than men.(E) Women tended the cattle and so had a lot of power.
141 (B)They were valued as fieldworkers and for educating children.