Militarism The belief in building up a strong armed forces to prepare your country for war. Alliance System Countries agreed to support one another in case of an attack. 2 alliances would emerge: Triple Entente and Triple Alliance Imperialism Britain, France, Germany, Italy and Russia all scrambled for colonies in Africa, Asia and the Pacific. Nationalism Pride or devotion to one's country. Nationalism encouraged unity, and also would put nation against nation.
“The glorification of war and increase in military spending” Germany competed against England’s naval superiority
Triple Alliance: Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy Triple Entente/Allied Powers: France, Russia, and Great Britain
“Great pride in one’s country or aspiring to become one’s country” Germany and Italy had recently become united, independent countries In-fighting Tensions= militarism and imperial competition
As Ottoman Empire receded, new nations were born People with diverse religions, ethnic backgrounds, & languages Russia and Austria competed for control of new nations Austria-Hungary annexes Bosnia in 1908 Serbia resentful
Long Term 1. Stockpiling of Weapons 2. Alliance System 3. Imperial Competition 4. Nationalism Short Term Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand of Austria by a Serbian radical group. the spark that started WWI
After the assassination, Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia Russia supported Serbia Germany supported Austria-Hungary. Within one week, almost all of Europe was at war: Germany invades France & declares war on Russia Britain declares war on Germany
Triple Entente (Allies) Britain, France, Russia, Belgium United States joined in 1917, Russia drops out. Central Powers Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Ottoman Empire
Western Front Northeastern France Major Battles Verdun and Somme Eastern Front Russian border Balkan Front Allies gave up after major defeat at Gallipoli Italian Front Italy joined the Triple Entente in 1915.
…over 400 miles of trenches across Belgium and France *Most offenses resulted in heavy casualties but gained little territory.
More power Travelled further 24 million shells used in the Battle of Verdun alone
Traditional warfare tactics of sending masses of men toward enemy didn’t work against modern weapons Britain suffered 57,470 casualties on the first day of the Battle of the Somme. Total losses for World War I exceeded 10 million.
1. Germany 1,935,000 2. Russia 1,700,000 3. France 1,368,000 4. Austria-Hungary 1,200,000 5. British Empire 942,135 6. Ottoman Empire 725,000 7. Italy 680,000 8. Romania 300,000 9. United States 116,516 10. Bulgaria 87,495 11. Belgium 45,550 12. Serbia 45,000 13. Greece 23,098 14. Portugal 8,145 15. Montenegro 3,000 16. Japan 1,344
475 mile of trenches were dug across northern France British troops used over ten million shovels during the war. Charging over the top, crossing no man’s land to reach enemy trenches Boring, terrifying, and caused shell shock Horrible living conditions
Trench Warfare was a type of fighting during World War I in which both sides dug trenches protected by mines and barbed wire. Cross-section of a front-line trench
Many men killed in the trenches were buried almost where they fell. The corpses, along with food scraps, attracted rats Quotes from soldiers fighting in the trenches: "The rats were huge. They were so big they would eat a wounded man if he couldn't defend himself." "I saw some rats running from under the dead men's greatcoats, enormous rats, fat with human flesh. My heart pounded as we edged towards one of the bodies. His helmet had rolled off. The man displayed a grimacing face, stripped of flesh; the skull bare, the eyes devoured and from the yawning mouth leapt a rat."
“In Flanders Fields” – John McCrae 1915 “All Quiet on the Western Front” - Erich Maria Remarque 1928 In Flanders fields the poppies blow Between the crosses, row on row, That mark our place; and in the sky The larks, still bravely singing, fly Scarce heard amid the guns below. We are the Dead. Short days ago We lived, felt dawn, saw sunset glow, Loved and were loved, and now we lie In Flanders fields. Take up our quarrel with the foe: To you from failing hands we throw The torch; be yours to hold it high. If ye break faith with us who die We shall not sleep, though poppies grow In Flanders fields. “But now, for the first time, I see you are a man like me. I thought of your hand-grenades, of your bayonet, of your rifle; now I see your wife and your face and our fellowship. Forgive me, comrade. We always see it too late. Why do they never tell us that you are poor devils like us, that your mothers are just as anxious as ours, and that we have the same fear of death, and the same dying and the same agony--Forgive me, comrade; how could you be my enemy?”
Men @ war start doing their jobs Worked in paramilitary organizations to support soldiers at war Discovered the benefits of financial freedom Some refused to return to domestic service Won the right to vote throughout Europe “Sister Suzie Sewing Shirts for Soldiers” – Billy Murray (1915) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dAkJRPfYMTo http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dAkJRPfYMTo
April 6 th, 1917 – US enters WWI By declaring war on Germany http://www.history.com/topics/world-war-i/lusitania http://www.history.com/topics/world-war-i/lusitania Germany and France, sent ~80% of their male populations between the ages of 15 and 49 into battle Schlieffen Plan German plan- surprise, quick attacks in France & concurrent attack on Russian border
Russia’s exit from WWI March 3 rd, 1918 Signed by Lenin & Kaiser Wilhelm II End of the war between Russia and Germany The Eastern Front WHY DID RUSSIA SIGN THIS TREATY? Over-extended The Bolshevik representatives wanted to concentrate on the work they needed to do in Russia itself February Revolution (discussion next week!)
October 4 th 1918 October 29 th October 30 th November 3 rd November 9 th November 11 th Germany asked the Allies for an armistice ** Germany’s navy mutinied Turkey made peace Austria made peace Kaiser Wilhelm II abdicated Germany signed an armistice with the Allies – the official date of the end of World War One **Allied Powers were better supplied and coordinated
At 11 o'clock in the morning of the 11th day of the 11th month of 1918, the First World War came to an end "Officers had their watches in their hands, and the troops waited with the same grave composure with which they had fought." As watch hands reached 11, "there came a second of expectant silence, and then a curious rippling sound, which observers far behind the front likened to the noise of a light wind. It was the sound of men cheering from the Vosges [mountains] to the sea."
Italy and Britain wanted territory France wanted to punish Germany Italy and US left, leaving peace settlement to France and Britain Woodrow Wilson pushed “Fourteen Points” Some ideas: no secret treaties, create League of Nations France and Britain created a severe treaty that punished Germany. Germany had to: Return land to France Demilitarize Pay $32 billion Accepted “war guilt” Severely angered the German people (Hitler’s greatest weapon) http://www.history.com/topics/world- war-i/treaty-of-versailles
YesNo League of Nations created Germany left out Land given to Poland, France, Belgium, Russia & Denmark All overseas colonies given to the League Navy reduced to 6 battleships & no submarines No air force Western Germany demilitarized Alliance with Austria forbidden Reduce army to 100,00 Only on paper “War Guilt” On paper- signed the Treaty but resentful Reparations Sort of- couldn’t produce enough to pay back & in 1933 Hitler outright refused to pay Couldn’t afford them!
Many countries experienced a change in their borders Bulgaria, Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia lost territory The following land was taken away from Germany Alsace-Lorraine (given to France) Eupen and Malmedy (given to Belgium) Northern Schleswig (given to Denmark) Hultschin (given to Czechoslovakia) West Prussia, Posen and Upper Silesia (given to Poland)