2 EFFECTS OF THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR ON THE U.S. (#2, #6) Foreign Policy and ImperialismThe U.S. became a world powerAcquired new territory in the Caribbean and Pacific, including the Panama CanalEconomic PolicyBoth large and small businesses took the opportunity to expand into new foreign marketsAmericans began to invest heavily in Latin American countries
3 BACKGROUND OF IMPERIALISM (#12, #19) By the end of the Spanish-American War, the U.S. was occupying four of Spain’s former colonies and had marked a shift in foreign policy by becoming a world power“Imperialists” saw this as an opportunity. They believed the U.S. should take its own colonies before European countries got them all. This was of primary interest between 1898 and 1900.Because other powers were competing for naval supremacy, many in the U.S. thought the U.S. must be able to compete.
4 REASONS FOR IMPERIALISM (COLONIAL EXPANSION) (#1) THE NEED FOR RAW MATERIALS AND MARKETS – Colonies could provide needed raw materials for factories, guaranteed markets, and places for farmers to sell their surplus cropsSTRATEGIC REASONS – Colonies would promote American naval strength. America could have a more powerful navy with bases throughout the worldNATIONALISM – Would show the U.S. was a great and powerful nationATTITUDES TOWARD OTHER PEOPLE – Belief in Anglo-Saxon superiority, spreading American institution could help others, and converting people to Christianity
5 REASONS FOR U.S. INTEREST IN THE CARIBBEAN AND A CHANGE IN FOREIGN POLICY (#8, #11) HEMISPHERIC SECURITY – U.S. sought to keep foreign powers out of the Caribbean because they might pose a threat to U.S. securityECONOMIC INTEREST – Caribbean was an important supplier of agricultural products (sugar) and provided a valuable market for American goods and investmentNEED FOR A CANAL – The U.S. needed easier access by water between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. This could most likely be achieved by building a canal in Central America
6 PANAMA (#8) Narrowest point in Central America Part of Columbia – The U.S. and Columbia entered into negotiations but could not reach a deal for PanamaT. Roosevelt struck a deal with Panamanian rebels to help them win independence from ColumbiaSent a warship to protect the rebels and recognized Panama as a new countryIn return, Panama gave the U.S. complete control of a 10-mile strip of rainforest through Panama, known as the canal zone
7 AMERICAN POLICIES IN LATIN AMERICA (#18, #20) The Monroe Doctrine (1823) – prevented Europeans from establishing new colonies in the Western HemisphereRoosevelt Corollary (known as the Big Stick Policy – “walk softly but carry a big stick”)declared that the U.S. would act as an “international police power” in Latin American affairs.was often used to justify sending U.S. troops to the West Indies and Central America (Haiti, Nicaragua, Honduras, and Dominican Republic)Was deeply resented by Latin Americans
8 CONTINUED… (#16)TAFT AND DOLLAR DIPLOMACY – Taft encouraged bankers to invest in Caribbean countriesDollar Diplomacy – American investments were used to promote American foreign policy goalsIf Latin American countries couldn’t repay loans on time, U.S. troops were sent in to ensure paymentWILSON’S LATIN AMERICAN POLICY – wanted to turn from the bullying tactics of previous presidentsSent troops to Haiti, Nicaragua, and the Dominican Republic to protect American interestsPurchased the Virgin Islands from Denmark in 1917
9 AMERICA IN THE PACIFIC (#9) THE PHILIPPINES – Fought the United States until 1902 for independence, since they were disappointed that the U.S. did not grant them independence after the Spanish-American WarGUAM – Was taken from Spain by the U.S. during the Spanish-American War in It was an important port-of-call crossing the Pacific. Today, it is an unincorporated territory of the U.S.SAMOA AND MIDWAY – Midway became an American possession in 1867, even before the Sp.-Am. War. In 1899, Samoa was divided between Germany and the U.S. These Pacific islands provided valuable naval bases and refueling stations for American ships traveling to AsiaIn Hawaii, Queen Liliuokalani was overthrown by American plantation owners in Hawaii was annexed by the U.S. in 1900
10 THE WAR AT HOME (#3, 7, 15, 21)The Selective Service Act – registered American men for the draftThe War Industries Board – controlled industrial production (government spending increased rapidly between 1916 and 1918 – the war was a significant benefit to the economy)Espionage and Sedition Acts – targeted socialists and labor leaders (made it a crime to criticize the war effort)Women and African-Americans filled the jobs of almost 2 million men that fought in Europe
11 THE U.S. JOINS THE WAR (#4, 17)The U.S. had maintained a policy of isolationism, which kept the U.S. out of the war for 3 yearsThe U.S. joined the war in 1917Angered by the use of unrestricted submarine warfare (sinking of unarmed civilian vessels like the Lusitania)Zimmerman Note – offer to Mexico to give them U.S. lands if Mexico joined the war and attacked the U.S. (intercepted by U.S. intelligence)
12 CHARACTERISTICS OF WWI (#12) Government propagandaFought on two frontsTrench Warfare (led to a stalemate)Use of airplanesNew weapons (machine guns, poison gas, etc.)Unrestricted submarine warfare (U-boats)TOTAL WAR
13 AMERICAN HEROES (#22)General John J. Pershing – led the American Expeditionary Force (instrumental in the Battle of Argonne Forest)Alvin York – won the medal of honor for bravery and his capturing of many German troops
14 THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES (# 13) In 1919, for the first time, the U.S. Senate rejected a peace treaty. The Senate failed to reach its required two-thirds majority when just 39 of 55 senators voted for the treaty. Though President Woodrow Wilson had personally negotiated the treaty following World War I along with his idea for a League of Nations, the Senate could not agree. “Reservationists”, led by Henry Cabot Lodge, would only approve the treaty if certain reservations or alterations were adopted, while the “Irreconcilables” opposed it in any form. This expressed the view of many former American leaders, including George Washington – that the United States need not “entangle our peace and prosperity in the toils of European ambition”The United States never ratified the Treaty of Versailles, nor did it join the League of Nations. However, in 1921, Congress approved resolutions that formally ended hostilities with both Germany and Austria-Hungary.If you were a senator in 1919, would you have voted for the Treaty of Versailles? Would you have voted to join the League of Nations? Explain your answers._________________________________________________________________
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