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Howitzer. Howitzer Shell STALEMATE (p. 29) A 750 km front line ran from Switzerland to the English Channel Despite massive artillery bombardments and.

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Presentation on theme: "Howitzer. Howitzer Shell STALEMATE (p. 29) A 750 km front line ran from Switzerland to the English Channel Despite massive artillery bombardments and."— Presentation transcript:

1 Howitzer

2 Howitzer Shell

3 STALEMATE (p. 29) A 750 km front line ran from Switzerland to the English Channel Despite massive artillery bombardments and infantry assaults, there was a stalemate on the Western Front. Why?

4 Why the stalemate? MILITARY TECHNOLOGY Mass produced Low price Water-cooled replaced by air-cooled Rendered barbed wire and cavalry relatively ineffective

5 Why the stalemate? Cavalry Needed 22 pounds of feed a day Transporting them was laborious Felled by artillery and poison gas

6 Why the stalemate? Trenches Falkenhayn wants to negotiate a peace with Russia, 10/1914 Chancellor says no Falkenhayn goes into defensive mode, builds trench system to hold back the French – Trenches free up defensive troops, allowing deployment in other places

7 P. 31 – “A few machine gun nests in a relatively thinly manned front line…inflict enormous damage on (a) frontal assault…”

8 Effects on the troops Death and Diseases in the Trenches: Trench Rats: The trenches were infested by millions of rats. The lack of proper waste disposal and unsanitary conditions, combined with a multitude of corpses to feed on made the trenches ideal breeding grounds for the rats. This also caused the outbreak of a number of diseases. Body Lice and Trench Fever: Lice infestation was another scourge the soldiers had to contend with. Despite being deloused regularly, the infestations never seemed to diminish and caused trench fever. Severe pains and high fever took a toll on the health of the soldiers, and recovery took about twelve weeks. Lice were only identified as the cause of trench fever toward the end of the war.

9 Death and Diseases in the Trenches: Trench Foot: Soldiers in the trenches often suffered from trench foot, a condition caused by fungal infections. Standing long hours in the wet and unsanitary conditions of the trenches caused these infections, which quickly turned gangrenous and needed surgical amputation of the limb. Dysentery: A lack of sanitation in the trenches and irregular supply of drinking water caused a condition known as dysentery. Soldiers often had to rely on melted snow and water from shell-holes. Unsanitary drinking water caused bacterial infections of the intestines. Diarrhea, fever, vomiting, and stomach aches were the main symptoms, and dehydration often turned fatal.

10 Trench Foot

11 The Imperial War (p.31) First and Second Balkan Wars ( ) reduced the Ottoman Empire’s territories by 4/5ths Not ready for a war with Russia BUT angry Muslim refugees from the Balkans increased nationalistic anger against the Entente countries AND insisted on better treatment of ethnic groups within the OE

12 The Balkans

13 The Imperial War (p.31) Ottoman officials knew Russia wanted to conquer Istanbul to control the straits and shipping Mistrusted Britain and France b/c of colonialism LIKED Germany, though, b/c of its industrialization and science

14 Istanbul

15 p. 32 9/1914 – “Young Turks” renounce unequal treaties, leading to increased anti-western sentiment w/in Ottoman Empire YT showed their preference for the Central Powers by giving Goeben and Breslau (German warships trapped in the Med) refuge

16 Diplomatic discussions founder The Ottoman leaders wanted the Brits and French to get Russia to promise that it would not take any OE land after the war. – Did the Brits or French agree? – What did Minister of War Enver do? (p33) – Who was Wilhelm Souchon and what did he do? – Who is happiest with the results of Souchon’s actions?

17 Battles in the Caucasus, Gallipoli and the Middle East See map, p. 99 for location of Caucasus mountains Enver tries an end-around to surround the Russian army of the Caucasus – Why did it fail? – What was the Battle of Sarikamish?

18 Gallipoli Gallipoli (Feb – Dec. 1915) – 10 MONTHS – SERIOUSLY! See top paragraph, right side, page 34 April 25,1915, Entente forces land on the peninsula of Gallipoli. German supplies to the Ottomans helped hold the intense fighting near the shore. Bulgaria comes in 9/15,freeing more Ottoman troops to fight in Gallipoli. Allies withdraw in December after 230,000 casualties. – Who are the ANZACS?

19 Suez Canal – why is it important? P. 35

20 After Gallipoli Russian Caucasus Army wins at Erzerum, Feb Where else did the OE suffer defeats at this time? (p.35) Gallipoli

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