ARCH DUKE FRANS FERDINAND OF AUSTRIA- HUNGARY GAVRILLO PRINCIP OF BOSNIA AND THE BLACK HAND
1. An internal conflict between Austria- Hungry and Serbia over the possession of Bosnia 2. Political Alliances countries entered the war because they were allied with countries with an interest, not because they had an interest themselves 3. Imperialism/Nationalism 4. Militarism 5. The assassination of Arch Duke Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary by a Serbian national
1. It forever shattered the century-old balance of power among nations 2. It introduced the concept of total war What does “Total War” mean? 3. It destroyed a large portion of an entire generation of European youth 4. It brought 20 years of peace to Europe
The Triple Alliance Germany Austria-Hungary Italy The Triple Entente Great Britain France Russia
Wilson was cautious about the war He believed that the US should stay out of it Focused on domestic issues Believed in “Neutral Rights” The right of any nation to trade with any and all nations involved in the war Why would this cause a problem? Strong anti and pro-war factions at home kept Wilson on the fence the first 2 years of the war.
What’s that? A U-Boat blockading New York? Tut Tut, very inopportune!
Yet another close Presidential Election Wilson wins over Pro- War T. Roosevelt and Anti-War Republican Charles Even Hughes Wilson plays the middle and wins Roosevelt and Hughes split the Republican vote handing the election to Wilson
Many anti-war Americans began supporting US involvement when Germany began engaging in Submarine Warfare Why was this the turning point?
This was the final straw that pushed the US to war with the Triple Alliance Germans “believed” that the Lusitania was carrying munitions to England 1,959 Passengers 1,195 Casualties 128 American Causalities Caused American Outrage
The first war to pit entire societies against one another—soldier vs. soldier, citizen vs. citizen The war decimated Europe, its people, wealth and culture The result was it left the United State on top It was “The War to End all Wars. To make the world safe for democracy.”
In January of 1917 Germany started unrestricted submarine warfare with all ships in the Atlantic On February 25, the British intercepted a telegram from German Foreign Minister Arthur Zimmerman to the government of Mexico asking them to join the German cause. If they did so they were promised to regain Texas and the American Southwest The telegram was made public which enraged Americans and pushed them towards war
First act of the war—helping the British Navy to end the submarine threat to shipping and ship travel in the Atlantic Many American’s thought that only the US Navy would be involved in the War—NOT the army. But when Russia pulled out of the War in early 1918 due to political Revolution and a change in power, US troops were needed in Europe to fight the Germans.
Most American Soldiers were Drafted into service under the Selective Service Act. 3 million men were drafted 2 million volunteered This group was named The American Expeditionary Force Most American Soldiers fought for over 6 months in hard combat as the final push to stop the German offensive into France.
Paid for the war with Liberty Bonds Higher income taxes Taxes on excess corporate products—why? Loans from the American people War Boards—officials who organized the war effort at home to supply the army There were many boards organized based on economic function (railroads, fuel, steal, etc.) The War Economy War boards worked with industry to maximize production and profits Labor unions cooperated and received concessions in return Many industries could only meet a small fraction of wartime needs The war boards demonstrated the benefits of a managed economy
Government Agency Directed to create strong public support for the War Pressured newspapers into printing only positive stories about the war Issuing patriotic posters Making pro-war propaganda films Asking citizens to report on neighbors that they suspected of disloyalty
Legislation meant to protect America from domestic threats Banned groups who opposed the war from using the U.S. Mail Service Eliminated public criticism of the president Cracked down on the socialist party Arrested Socialist leader Eugene Debs Called for American Unity In response some Americans formed vigilante groups that sought out anti-war Americans and punished them
Wilson claimed from the beginning that the war would make the world “Safe for Democracy” that there would be “Peace without victory” January 8, 1918 Wilson presented his peace plan to Congress in the form of 14 Points. An expression of “Internationalism” Championed the idea of “Self-Determination” for all peoples. Suggested a League of Nations—world peacekeeping organization Suggested impartial mediation of colonial claims Suggested a reduction of arms (weapons, tools of war) Were idealistic Flawed in that they did not describe how the points were to implemented.
Wilson asked voters to elect a Democratic Congress, if they didn’t, he said, they were weakening his leadership in Europe. Republicans, who had supported the war, were offended and campaigned against Wilson. Republicans end up winning a slim margin in both houses. Wilson’s stature lessons.
October 3, 1918, after three years of hard fought war, Germany could no longer sustain the effort Too few soldiers, couldn’t supply them, couldn’t feed citizens Asked Wilson to begin peace Why is this a problem? Germans leave France and Belgium and form a new CIVILIAN government
October 3, 1918—German Chancellor asks Wilson to begin peace process based on the 14 Points. Wilson tells Germans to evacuate Belgium and France and form a civilian government. German Chancellor flees and new government takes over. Armistice is signed on November 11, 1918 to take effect at 11:00 a.m. Germans agree to withdraw forces to the Rhine River and to surrender all military equipment including 150 U-Boats.
Wilson leads peace conference in Paris, January 12, 1919. Wilson refuses to appoint any Republicans to the U.S. peace commission. U.S. France, Britain, Italy and the U.S. dominate the conference—”Big Four”
Russia not represented at the Paris Peace Conference Russia formed separate peace with Germany after Communist Revolution of 1917 and Russia’s pulling out of the war. Wilson sent troops to keep Russia’s war supplies out of German hands in 1918 Wilson feared the spread of Communism above all else Wilson gave in to European allies at the peace conference for fear of a weak alliance against the “Communist threat”
Based off of Wilson’s 14 Points Contained 440 Articles Successes League of Nations formed—called on all members to protect the “territorial integrity” and “political independence” of all members. Germany held responsible for causing the war Reparations—Pay allies for all civilian damage and veterans’ costs--$33 billion Military—German army and navy must be held to a tiny force West bank of the Rhine River was declared a military free zone forever and was to be occupied by the French for 15 years. Is this “Peace without victory”? Failures Failed to secure freedom of the seas, Failed to secure free trade for member nations, Failed to a reduction of armaments (amongst allies), Failed in the return of Russia to the society of free nations.
Germans invited to the conference AFTER the peace treaty was complete. They were told to “sign it, or else” Wilson gets the Monroe Doctrine exempted from the treaty Wilson presented it to the Senate— Democrats supported it, Republicans were split. Debate over Article X—The League Covenant
Every State which resorts to war in violation of the undertakings contained in the Covenant or in the present Protocol is an aggressor. Violation of the rules laid down for a demilitarized zone shall be held equivalent to resort to war. In the event of hostilities having broken out, any State shall be presumed to be an aggressor, unless a decision of the Council, which must be taken unanimously, shall otherwise declare: 1. If it has refused to submit the dispute to the procedure of specific settlement provided by Articles 13 and 15 of the Covenant as amplified by the present Protocol, or to comply with a judicial sentence or arbitral award or with a unanimous recommendation of the Council, or has disregarded a unanimous report of the Council, a judicial sentence or an arbitral award recognizing that the dispute between it and the other belligerent State arises out of a matter which by international law is solely within the domestic jurisdiction of the latter State; nevertheless, in the last case the State shall only be presumed to be an aggressor if it has not previously submitted the question to the Council or the Assembly, in accordance with Article 11 of the Covenant. Apart from the cases dealt with in paragraphs 1 and 2 of the present Article, if the Council does not at once succeed in determining the aggressor, it shall be bound to enjoin upon the belligerents an armistice, and shall fix the terms, acting, if need be, by a two-thirds majority and shall supervise its execution. Senate Republicans wanted Article X to be understood that the U.S. would not go to war to defend a league member without the approval of Congress. Wilson wouldn’t budge.
Wilson embarks on a public tour to gain support of the treaty’s ratification. Suffers a stroke and is paralyzed on his left side. Continues being president. Writes a letter to Senate Democrats urging them to oppose the ratification of the treaty with the changes. The Treaty fails to get ratified.
European Leaders encourage Wilson to compromise but he refuses. Senate votes again on the treaty and again in fails Senate votes to declare peace with Germany without ratifying the treaty. The US becomes the only nation NOT to join the League of Nations.