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Working safely in the construction industry

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1 Working safely in the construction industry

2 Aims of the Workplace Health and Safety (WHS) induction training
To provide a basis for general WHS induction training only – site specific and work activity induction training are the responsibility of the employer To support the requirements of the nationally endorsed unit of competency: CPCCOHS1001A Work safely in the construction industry To support the requirements of the National Code of Practice for Induction Training for Construction Work Introduction

3 New laws and new words … Workplace Health and Safety (WHS) induction training for construction now falls under new national laws (Work Health and Safety Act 2011) The new laws use new words: PCBU (Persons Conducting a Business or Undertaking) – this means your employer or the manager of your workplace Worker (this is you – or in other words, employees) Workplace (any place where a worker goes or is likely to be while at work Health and Safety Representative (can be elected by workers and has powers relating to health and safety) The main difference relates to shared responsibility in workplace health and safety Also, idea of ‘reasonably practicable’, ie: taking into account the likelihood of hazard/risk occurring, degree of harm, what the person concerned knows (or ought to know), availability and suitability of controls, and cost Introduction

4 WHS legislative requirements
Outline: WHS law: why it is important, and the difference between WHS Acts, regulations, codes of practice and Australian Standards Duty of care: what it is, who it affects, and the duty of care responsibilities of: Persons Conducting a Business or Undertaking (PCBUs), and workers Working safely: describing safe working practices in construction, activities which require a licence or permit, and ways to keep the worksite safe WHS legislative requirements

5 WHS legislative requirements
WHS law Legislation is law passed by Parliament. It governs many areas, including health and safety at work. It can be national, or relevant to individual states and territories You need to know the WHS legislation that covers your job and workplace You are required by law to comply with them You need to understand how WHS Acts, regulations, codes and standards affect your work, job and workplace WHS legislative requirements

6 WHS law What are the differences between Acts, regulations, codes of practice and Australian Standards? Model Work Health and Safety Act 2011 OHS & Welfare Act (1986) Acts Are law Describe how to provide health and safety in the workplace Work Health and Safety Regulations 2011 OHS and Welfare Regulations (1995) Regulations Are made under the Act Set out the practical steps to follow to comply with the Act WHS legislative requirements

7 WHS law Codes of Practice
Model Code of Practice: Hazardous Manual Tasks Codes of Practice Give practical guidance on how to legally comply with regulations and Acts AS Formwork for concrete Australian Standards Developed to provide minimum levels of performance or quality Cover hazards, work processes and products WHS legislative requirements

8 WHS legislative requirements
Duty of care … requires a person to do everything reasonably practicable to protect themselves and others from harm. It is the legal responsibility of everyone on site Persons conducting a business or undertaking (PCBUs) and supervisors workers and sub-contractors designers, manufacturers and suppliers inspectors etc WHS legislative requirements

9 Duty of care What are the duty of care responsibilities of PCBUs? To ensure that as far as is reasonably possible, workers are safe from injury and risk to health while at work To provide a safe working environment, facilities, systems and equipment (eg access to toilets and drinking water) To provide workers with WHS information and training WHS legislative requirements

10 Duty of care What are the duty of care responsibilities of workers? To cooperate with (or help) the PCBU on health and safety matters To take reasonable care to protect the health and safety of yourself and others who may be affected by your actions at work, eg keeping your work area safe and tidy telling other workers about hazards you have noticed, such as tools or equipment which are faulty or might need repair WHS legislative requirements

11 WHS legislative requirements
Working safely Safe working practices means working in a way that minimises risk to yourself, other people, equipment, materials, the environment, and work processes Do not take unnecessary risks Always look out for hazards Always use Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) If you must smoke, do so only in designated areas Keep your work area clean and tidy Enter and leave the workplace using proper routes Never attend work under the influence of drugs or alcohol etc WHS legislative requirements

12 WHS legislative requirements
Working safely The PCBU should give you information about safe systems and procedures at work. Boundaries, entry and exit points (eg emergency exits) Location of any hazards Location of first aid equipment Procedures for handling and disposing of materials and waste (especially if toxic or hazardous) How to access amenities such as drinking water and toilets PPE which must be worn in the workplace Other systems to help you to work safely, eg to limit dust etc WHS legislative requirements

13 Working safely Which activities need licences or permits?
Scaffolding (over 4 metres) Asbestos removal Dogging Rigging Crane operation Hoist operation Plumbing Gasfitting etc Always check to make sure you know what you need to have to do your work WHS legislative requirements

14 Working safely Tips for keeping the worksite safe:
Storage of materials and equipment: safe and organised manner so they can be retrieved again safely in accordance with MSDS and legislation cannot fall on a person or cause injury (eg through projection of sharp edges) flammable and combustible materials – do not store more than is necessary! Removal of debris: should continually be removed to prevent build up build up could affect entry/exit to a site and pose a fire hazard disposal must not create a risk to the environment Litter: includes things such as food scraps and wrappings, paper etc must be disposed of in proper containers (eg garbage bins) disposal must not pose a risk to the environment WHS legislative requirements

15 Working safely Tips for keeping the worksite safe: Site disturbance:
vehicles should always use nominated routes to limit mud soil etc tracking onto public roads loads should be covered to prevent materials or rubbish from escaping Dust: needs to be controlled water should be applied to roads and stockpiles to limit dust and pollution of stormwater systems Good housekeeping: essential to a safe work site every-day cleanliness, tidiness and good order in your work area machinery and equipment maintenance so they are in safe and efficient working order WHS legislative requirements

16 Risk management Outline: Managing risk: Common construction hazards:
what it is, and how it is assessed and managed Common construction hazards: What they are, how they are identified, and what you should do Controlling hazards: outlining ways to control hazards using the hierarchy of control Risk management

17 Risk: the likelihood of a hazard causing injury or harm
Managing risk Risk: the likelihood of a hazard causing injury or harm 5 basic principles of risk management: Identify hazards (find or see) Assess the risks involved (think about and check) Consult and report ensuring the involvement of relevant people (talk and tell) Control the hazard (stop or prevent it) Review to identify change or improvement (check and reflect) Risk management

18 Managing risk Risk assessment: means gathering information so that you can make a clear and educated decision about what needs to be done to lower the risk as far as possible Risk assessment is based on 3 factors to think about and check: The “likelihood” that it will do harm (probability) The “severity” of the harm it could do (consequence) The “number” of times people could be affected by it (frequency) Risk management

19 Common construction hazards
Hazard: any thing (including an intrinsic property of a thing) or situation with the potential to cause injury or harm Hazardous substances and dangerous goods can include: asbestos, synthetic mineral fibres, cement dust, chemicals and solvents, custom wood and wood dust etc It can take a long time after exposure before hazardous substances can affect your health You must use PPE for protection You must follow correct procedures for handling and disposal of some materials (never try to remove asbestos) Sometimes specialist training is needed before a material or good can be handled – check if you are unsure Risk management

20 Common construction hazards
Some examples of common hazards on a construction site Asbestos (biggest killer of workers in Australia) Found in many areas including bonded form (around eaves, ceilings, wet areas etc), and friable form (around hot water pipes etc) Never try to remove asbestos – law states that people who assess and remove asbestos must be licensed You must immediately report the presence (or suspected presence) of asbestos Chemicals and solvents Always check the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) before handling MSDS details safe handling and disposal procedures If in doubt, isolate and check Risk management

21 Common construction hazards
Some examples of common hazards on a construction site Dust (wood or cement) Cement and gypsum-based materials found in things like mortar, concrete and adhesives Excavation, demolition, traffic flow can cause dust problems Always comply with MSDSs, wear approved respirator, eye protection and gloves, wet down dusty areas, keep vehicle speed down, use wet methods when cutting, dispose of safely etc Risk management

22 Common construction hazards
Some examples of common hazards on a construction site Noise Usually caused by vehicles/traffic, machinery and heavy equipment, hand and explosive powered tools Can cause hearing loss or damage, stress, headaches, problems with communication etc Always wear protection (eg plugs, ear muffs etc) Be aware of appropriate sound levels or decibels Risk management

23 Common construction hazards
Some examples of common hazards on a construction site Manual handling Activities that require you to use force to lift, lower, push, pull, carry or move a load commonly cause injuries (eg breaks, twists, sprains, ligament damage to shoulders, hands, neck, back and knees etc) Consider things such as the distance the object is to be moved, using mechanical aids, your physical abilities etc If awkward or heavy, do not attempt by yourself – organise others to help Risk management

24 Common construction hazards
Some examples of common hazards on a construction site Plant & equipment Use only if safe to use and fit for the purpose intended Live electrical equipment must never be worked on until de-energised and/or physically isolated by a qualified person (shut down and tag or lock out) Knife blades must be covered when not in use, and locked in place when in use Always look out for: overhead power lines exposed, moving mechanical components (eg gears, drive shafts, pulleys etc) areas where there could be a release of steam, chemicals, pressurised fluids, or biological hazards Risk management

25 Common construction hazards
Some examples of common hazards on a construction site UV radiation Comes from the sun as well as lasers, welding flashes and high intensity lighting Passes through the skin and harms living body cells (sunburn) – eyes are also at risk Be sensible and protect your eyes and skin – wear correct PPE (welding mask, sunglasses, hats, long sleeved shirts, sunscreen etc) Risk management

26 Common construction hazards
Some examples of common hazards on a construction site Electrical safety Hazards include energised equipment, electrical wires, power cords and tools, installed photovoltaic (solar) panels etc You must report all electric shocks and short circuits Australian Standards and WHS legislation demand regular routine inspections of electrical equipment All electrical equipment must be tested and tagged, earthed properly, and unplugged when changing blades and fittings Electrical leads should be suspended off the ground Portable equipment must include a residual current device (RCD) especially if equipment is exposed to potential damage or often being moved Where a portable generator is being used, make sure wiring is correct and outlet socket, generator and frame have a common earth wired by a licensed electrician Risk management

27 Common construction hazards
Some examples of common hazards on a construction site Traffic & mobile plant (especially when mobile) You must be licensed to operate, and able to safely control You must carry out all pre-operational checks when starting or taking over equipment (including warning and hazard signs and lights) You must follow rules and procedures, eg work within specified areas, observe and obey warning signs, be aware of people and objects around you when working, replace or check guards before and after use etc Risk management

28 Common construction hazards
Some examples of common hazards on a construction site Working at height and falls Falls are one of the most common forms of serious injury or death in construction Risk is fall from height or from one level to another Where there is risk of a fall, the PCBU must ensure as far as reasonably practicable that work is done on the ground or a solid construction Where risk can’t be eliminated (hierarchy of control), protection must be given to you and used, regardless of the height fall prevention device or work positioning system or fall arrest system Risk management

29 Common construction hazards
Some examples of common hazards on a construction site Working at height and falls (continued) There are a number of things that must be considered or done, eg: doing as much work as possible at ground level protecting people below using scaffolds or mobile work platforms if required – scaffolding above 4 metres must be erected by a licensed scaffolder when working above 2 metres, kick boards and hand railings must be used using edge protection or safety harnesses Risk management

30 Common construction hazards
Some examples of common hazards on a construction site Falling objects You must take care to ensure that objects do not fall onto or hit people doing construction work and in nearby areas (eg public footpath, road, other area beside your workplace) Falling objects include equipment, material, tools and debris that can fall or be sent out sideways or upwards (eg tools falling off a working platform, rocks and soil falling into a trench, falling bricks bounced off the side of a building, concrete pre-cast panels falling over etc) Use correct danger tags and warning signs Ensure safe practices such as exclusion zones around scaffolding and adjoining areas, perimeter containment screening, materials never dropped from a scaffold, safe ways to raise and lower objects etc Risk management

31 Common construction hazards
Some examples of common hazards on a construction site Excavations (including trenches) A trench is a deep hole, channel, ditch, or cut in the ground An excavation is a hole or cavity made by excavating All trenches and excavations must be barricaded or flagged off to warn people of their location and to prevent accidental or unauthorised entry Generally, entry is not allowed immediately next to trenches/excavations that are 1.5 metres in depth or more (unless sides are benched, battered or supported) Risk management

32 Common construction hazards
Some examples of common hazards on a construction site Confined spaces A confined space is an enclosed (or partly enclosed) space that: is not designed or intended to be occupied by a person is (or is designed or intended to be) at normal atmospheric pressure while a person is in the space is (or is likely to be) a risk to health and safety from: unsafe oxygen levels contaminants in the air (gas, vapours, dust etc) which can cause a fire or explosion harmful concentrations of contaminants in the air engulfment (eg by materials such as sand or water) eg pits, tanks, ducts, pipes, pressure vessels, roof spaces etc Covered by an Australian Standard Requires special training and a confined space entry permit Risk management

33 Common construction hazards
Some examples of common hazards on a construction site Unplanned collapse Poses a significant danger to construction workers Can involve: collapse of a building or structure (or part of a building or structure) which is weak or unstable before it has been completed collapse, overturning or failure of a load-bearing part of a lift, crane, hoist, lifting gear or scaffolding collapse of shoring or an excavation which is more than 1.5 metres deep Be aware of potential hazards and risks and comply with procedures, regulations and Australian Standards (especially those related to maximum load limits of load bearing equipment) Risk management

34 Common construction hazards
Some examples of common hazards on a construction site Hot and cold working environments Some work sites and tasks may expose you to hot or cold working environments with particular risks (eg work outdoors → UV radiation, wind chill, thermal hazards etc) The effects of heat and cold on the body are affected by the environment through: air temperature (how hot or cold the surrounding air is) humidity (the moisture content in the air) air movement including wind speed and air circulation radiant heat (from the sun, given out by plant, buildings, equipment etc) You must understand the difference between discomfort, and hypothermia, heat stroke and heat exhaustion which can mean serious medical conditions Risk management

35 Common construction hazards
Some examples of common hazards on a construction site Infectious diseases Found in blood and other body fluids (eg HIV, hepatitis etc) Transmission will usually occur if: hypodermic needles or other sharp instruments contaminated with infected blood or body fluids penetrate the skin infected blood or body fluids splash into your eye or other mucous membranes or onto broken skin Some work activities have increased risk, eg plumber exposed to syringe left in toilet, workers using sharp instruments or tools that might penetrate skin Risk management

36 Common construction hazards
Some examples of common hazards on a construction site Infectious diseases (continued) You must ensure that you protect yourself and others (eg use PPE, cover wounds, cuts and abrasions with dressings, use proper cleaning materials such as bleach, etc) If exposure happens, you need to act immediately, eg: wash exposed body part with soap and water or 70% alcohol rub eyes - rinse with tap water or saline mouth – spit out and rinse continually with water notify your supervisor and health and safety representative as soon as possible Risk management

37 Common construction hazards
Identifying hazards: where you recognise that a hazard exists, or may exist Be observant and aware, ie: Frequent inspections of your workplace Talk to people to find out about hazards, or let them know about hazards you have found Check workplace records of previous hazards, injuries and accidents to give you ideas about potential hazards Report hazards or dangerous situations you have identified so that all workers can be safe! Risk management

38 Controlling hazards What is hazard control?
Limiting the dangers of a hazard Risk management, ie identifying the best way to reduce the risk posed by a hazard Elimination is always best if reasonably practicable If elimination is not possible, use the hierarchy of control Risk management

39 Controlling hazards Hierarchy of control
Control Measure 1: Substituting: replacing the hazard causing the risk with something that causes less risk (eg using safer equipment) Isolating: isolating the hazard from any person exposed to it (eg erecting a physical barrier) Engineering: creating a safer environment by making improvements to equipment or processes Risk management

40 Controlling hazards Hierarchy of control
If the risk remains, Control Measure 2: Administrative control: measures used to limit risk (eg providing training, warning signs etc) If the risk remains, Control Measure 3: PPE: used to minimise remaining risk so far as is reasonably practicable by providing extra protection Risk management

41 Controlling hazards Using the hierarchy of control
First conduct a risk assessment Elimination is always the best option – if not possible, apply the measures in the hierarchy of control in order (ie from Measure 1 through to Measure 3) Important: the highest control in the hierarchy that is able to be achieved should be put into place immediately – this is the starting point for safety If a single control is not enough to manage the risk, a combination of controls may be used A risk assessment should be done every time a control is used Risk management

42 WHS communication Outline:
WHS communication, information and documents why communication is important, where to get WHS information, types of WHS documentation, and how to raise health and safety issues WHS personnel: looking at Health and Safety Committees and Representatives, and others who have a role in health and safety Safety signs and symbols: what they are, what the colours and symbols mean, and looking at types of signs, safety tags and lockout Reporting hazards, incidents and injuries: why reporting is necessary, how it is done, who needs to be told, and workers compensation WHS communication

43 WHS communication, information & documents
WHS consultation is required by law Consultation is about encouraging cooperation and partnerships between PCBUs and workers to ensure workplace health and safety. It means: sharing WHS information with workers giving workers an opportunity to express opinions about resolving WHS issues valuing the opinions of workers when making decisions/changes to do with health and safety Consultation is an important way to find out information, and raise concerns WHS communication

44 WHS communication, information & documents
WHS information Find out information by: Reading, listening and asking questions Talk to people who are not at your workplace (eg people at your state or territory workplace safety authority information is available on the internet Search for “WHS+construction+[insert your topic]” Written WHS communication

45 WHS communication, information & documents
WHS documentation Several types of WHS documents at your workplace They provide information about health and safety, and methods for reporting, eg: Construction documentation and plans Safe Work Method Statements (SWMS) Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) Job Safety Analysis (JSA) Accident, incident and injury reports and proformas Reports of dangerous incidents or near misses Risk assessments WHS communication

46 WHS communication, information & documents
Raising WHS issues It is important that you have an opportunity to raise issues about health and safety in your workplace (and that you do so!) Issues can be raised verbally (by speaking to someone), or in writing (letter, etc) Opportunities to raise issues or concerns can include: toolbox talks (eg at smoko) WHS meetings talking with the Health and Safety Representative for your workplace during formal workplace consultation which would be organised by the PCBU Good communication leads to good WHS outcomes WHS communication

47 What is a Health and Safety Committee?
WHS personnel What is a Health and Safety Committee? Brings together workers and management to assist in the development and review of health and safety procedures Meets formally (3 monthly) to discuss and decide on safety issues The Committee can: make recommendations on safety look at ways to improve safety levels recommend improvements to work procedures, training etc Know who the representative for your workplace is on the Health and Safety Committee – this is the person to whom you can speak about health and safety problems or concerns WHS communication

48 WHS personnel Health and Safety Representative: A person nominated and appointed to represent health and safety for your workplace and its workers Responsibilities: consulting and cooperating with management and workers providing WHS information assisting workers to raise OHS issues securing participation and involvement of workers key people who have responsibility for WHS are your supervisor(s), project manager, people managing your company, the first aider, emergency services personnel etc Other WHS communication

49 Safety signs and symbols
What do the colours on safety signs mean? Australian Standards specify colour, size and shape Part of the administrative controls within the hierarchy of control Important communication tools - their message must be followed WHS communication

50 Safety signs and symbols
Safety signs are divided into four groups: Regulatory signs give information on legal obligations in WHS – they are divided into 3 types: Prohibition signs – tell you something you must not do Mandatory signs – tell you something that you must do Limitation or restriction signs – show that there are limits on an activity, or use of a building or place WHS communication

51 Safety signs and symbols
Hazard signs include danger signs (warn of dangers or risks to your health) and warning signs (warn you of a hazard that may threaten your life Emergency information signs tell you where emergency safety equipment is kept and where you can exit a building Fire signs identify where to find fire alarms, fire equipment and exits WHS communication

52 Safety signs and symbols
Safety tags and systems Test tags attached to electrical equipment by an authorised person after it has been tested Out of service tags identify equipment that is faulty or being serviced Safety tags (or danger tags) needed when more than one person has control or access to an isolation/activation point Lockout system used with safety tags to prevent operation of equipment by non-authorised persons Only the person who placed a tag/lockout can remove it WHS communication

53 Reporting hazards, incidents & injuries
Reporting is vital to maintain a safe and healthy workplace All incidents, regardless of whether there is an injury or not must be reported to the correct person Reporting can prevent repeated or new hazards, incidents and injuries Sometimes, there are legal requirements to report serious WHS issues to people or authorities outside your workplace, ie where there is a death or serious injury or illness or dangerous incident These are called ‘notifiable incidents’ – they must be notified Your supervisor or Health and Safety Representative can give you information WHS communication

54 Reporting hazards, incidents & injuries
How are hazards, incidents and injuries reported? Promptly to the relevant person (verbal and/or written): notifiable incidents must be reported to the relevant government authority depending on the type of incident, emergency services may also need to be notified Using the correct report form or “proforma” PCBU must forward all hazard, incident and injury reports relating to legal WHS requirements and keep WHS records Serious injuries and incidents must be reported immediately (verbally) and followed-up with a written report (within 48 hours) Check with supervisor/Health and Safety Representative WHS communication

55 Reporting hazards, incidents & injuries
Workers compensation Means you can receive medical treatment and assistance if you are injured at work All workers have a right to receive workers compensation Covers you for loss of wages and medical expenses to varying degrees (depending on the circumstances) Procedures need to be followed: complete relevant claim for compensation form as soon as possible attach medical certificates and expenses (eg receipts) that occurred as a result of the incident keep a copy of the form and all documents other procedures may be needed depending on your workplace/situation when returning to work, you must obtain a medical clearance WHS communication

56 Incident response Outline: General response procedures: First aid:
defining incidents and emergencies, and procedures for response and notifying the authorities First aid: looking at who is responsible for first aid, and types of equipment Personal Protective Equipment (PPE): what it is, why it is important, who needs to supply it, and common examples of PPE Fire safety equipment: common causes of fire, types of fire safety equipment, and what you should do in the event of a fire Incident response

57 General response procedures
An incident is: an accident resulting in death, personal injury or damage to property, or a dangerous incident or near miss which does not cause injury, but may pose a risk to people or property Near misses and dangerous incidents can include: damage to any plant, machinery or equipment that is likely to endanger the health or safety of people in the workplace damage or collapse of the load bearing member or control device of a crane, hoist, conveyor, lift, plant or scaffolding collapse or failure of excavations and related shoring collapse or partial collapse of a building or structure an uncontrolled fire, explosion or escape of gas, steam or dangerous substances any other occurrence involving imminent risk of fire, explosion or escape of hazardous substances; risk of death or serious personal injury to any person; or risk of substantial damage to property Incident response

58 General response procedures
An emergency is: a sudden unforeseen crisis (usually involving danger) that requires immediate action. It presents (or may present) a risk of serious injury or death to people on the work site Emergencies in a construction workplace can result from events such as: a chemical spill structural collapse (eg scaffolding, crane etc) fire toxic emissions vehicle and mobile plant accidents etc Incident response

59 General response procedures
Basic emergency response: You should know your site emergency response procedures before an emergency happens, including who needs to know and their contacts Procedures are written, eg in the emergency plan, evacuation plan and procedures, incident notification procedures etc (check with your supervisor) You must stay within your abilities and authority (ie don’t do anything you are not authorised to do, or are not capable of doing) Do not move people who are injured unless they will be in further danger if you don’t In an emergency, remember to KRO: K eep calm R aise alarm O btain help Incident response

60 General response procedures
Emergency Plan Helps to prevent panic, poor judgement under pressure, and breakdown of normal paths of communication and authority Outlines quick responses to eliminate or control danger and damage Provides a fail-safe communication system Includes procedures to be followed in an emergency, eg: for reporting a fire or other emergency for emergency evacuation (including exit routes) to be followed by workers who need to remain to operate critical plant/equipment before they evacuate to account for all workers after evacuation to be followed by those performing rescue/medical duties Incident response

61 General response procedures
Notifying emergency services Quickly decide who needs to know depending on the type of incident: fire brigade, ambulance, police, or onsite emergency personnel such as first aider/supervisor Pass on the following information quickly and clearly: The type of emergency (what has happened) The location including street address etc (where the emergency is) What action has been taken by people at the scene (what is being done) If there are any injuries to people (type and nature of injuries if you know) Whether emergency services have been contacted Your name (who is calling) How they can make further contact with you if needed Remember not to hang up until you get instructions or advice on the next steps to take! Incident response

62 First aid Who is responsible?
The PCBU has a legal obligation to provide first aid equipment and a trained first aider at your workplace Only people who have received first aid training (and are currently qualified) to provide first aid can actually give it A notice stating the name, contact number and work location of the first aider must be readily visible There should also be a first aid plan that details first aid procedures and equipment A qualified first aider must be appointed to be in charge of the first aid kit and first aid room. They must be accessible to all workers and ready to give first aid when needed. Incident response

63 First aid 3 types of first aid equipment:
Depends on the size of your workplace, ie A is the largest, and C is the smallest) The location of the First Aid Kit needs to be clearly marked by an approved and recognised sign. It may include resuscitators and resuscitation kits – these can only be operated by trained people Incident response

64 Do you have to give first aid?
You should not provide first aid unless you are qualified (certified) to do so If you come across an incident where first aid is needed, you must immediately notify the first aider and help them, eg by calling emergency services, keeping unauthorised people away etc First aid can reduce the severity of an injury or illness First aid incidents need to be reported and documented Proper first aid gives the initial and immediate attention to a person suffering an injury or illness – in some cases, it can mean the difference between life and death Incident response

65 Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
Designed to give protection and limit or avoid damage (it is not designed to prevent injury) Lowest control method in the hierarchy of control – you still need to think and act safely in your work and actions Must be supplied by the PCBU The purpose of each item of PPE must be explained to you You must be trained to fit and use each item of PPE correctly Never deliberately misuse or damage PPE Incident response

66 Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
Common examples of PPE: Headwear (eg hard hat, sun hats etc) Eye protection (goggles, welding mask etc) Hearing protection (ear plugs, muffs etc required for noise) Respiratory (lung/breathing protection – full face or ½ face mask depending on the hazard) Hand protection (gloves) Body protection (clothing such as overall, coveralls and aprons, high visibility clothing and vests etc) Feet protection (footwear which is steel-capped, non slip etc) Incident response

67 Fire causes and prevention
Fire safety equipment Fire causes and prevention Fire can be chemical, electrical, started by explosion or friction, caused by flammable materials, mechanical/welding etc Mostly can be avoided by careful planning and thinking about safety Fire hazards can be reduced by: Regularly removing built up waste and dust Safe keeping and handling of flammable materials Using and obeying warning signs Working safely (eg not welding near chemicals) Smoking only in designated areas Regular inspection of electrical equipment, etc Fire safety equipment must be assessed for suitability, and maintained in good working order by a trained person Incident response

68 Fire safety equipment Types of equipment
Signs (information, warnings and reminders) Blankets (easy to use – good for kitchen fires) Hose reels and mains (available for firefighting purposes if required by building codes and regulations) Breathing apparatus (needed by firefighters when firefighting, or exposed to high temperatures, lack of oxygen, toxic substances etc) Incident response

69 Types of fire extinguishers
Fire safety equipment Types of fire extinguishers Water extinguisher (when the main fire hazards are either wood, paper, textiles and rubbish) Carbon dioxide extinguisher (for fires involving live electrical appliances, and small flammable liquid fires such as petrol, paint and solvents) Powder type extinguisher (covers a wide range of risks including flammable liquids and energised electrical equipment) Foam extinguisher (used on A&B flammable liquids such as petrol, paint and solvents) Incident response

70 Fire safety equipment If there is a fire:
Keep calm, Raise alarm, Obtain help Follow emergency procedures and plans for your workplace (act quickly to limit danger to yourself and others) Use first-attack firefighting equipment if: it appears able to extinguish the fire size of fire is not a hazard to your safety level of smoke is not an obvious health hazard - remember any actions to extinguish a fire will increase smoke and loss of visibility a secure escape route is available Decide on the need for evacuation by considering things such as the emergency plan, level of assessed risk etc Notify appropriate people (eg fire warden) and follow instructions Incident response

71 Remember … Good workplace health and safety is a legal responsibility of everyone in the construction workplace Be watchful and aware at all times to identify potential hazards and risks Always work safely and comply with WHS procedures, regulations and Australian Standards (eg using PPE) Get involved – participate in WHS consultation and communication practices to improve health and safety Listen, read, and talk about WHS matters – good communication leads to good outcomes Know what to do and who to contact before an incident, accident or emergency happens Summary

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