Presentation on theme: "Objectives Summarize the evidence that led to the discovery of seafloor spreading. Explain the significance of magnetic patterns on the seafloor. Explain."— Presentation transcript:
Objectives Summarize the evidence that led to the discovery of seafloor spreading. Explain the significance of magnetic patterns on the seafloor. Explain the process of seafloor spreading. Vocabulary – magnetometer – paleomagnetism – magnetic reversal – seafloor spreading – isochron Seafloor Spreading
Until the mid-1900s, most people, including many scientists, thought that the ocean floor, unlike the continents, was essentially flat. Seafloor Spreading Many people also had the misconceptions that oceanic crust was unchanging and was much older than continental crust. Advances in technology during the 1940s and 1950s, however, proved all of these widely accepted ideas to be wrong.
Help from Technology The development of echo-sounding methods allowed scientists to study the ocean floor in great detail. Seafloor Spreading Sonar uses sound waves to measure water depth by measuring the time it takes for sound waves to travel from the device and back to a receiver.
Help from Technology A magnetometer is a device that can detect small changes in magnetic fields, allowing scientists to construct magnetic maps of the seafloor. Seafloor Spreading
Ocean Floor Topography The maps made from the data collected by sonar and magnetometers showed underwater mountain chains called ocean ridges. The same data showed that these underwater mountain chains have counterparts called deep-sea trenches. These two topographic features of the ocean floor puzzled geologists for over a decade after their discovery. Seafloor Spreading
Ocean Rocks and Sediments Analysis of deep-sea rocks and sediments produced two important discoveries. Seafloor Spreading 1.The ages of the rocks that make up the seafloor vary in different places, and that the age of oceanic crust consistently increases with distance from a ridge. – The oldest part of the seafloor is geologically young at about 180 million years old. 2.The thickness of ocean-floor sediment was, in general, much less than expected and that the thickness of the sediments increases with distance from an ocean ridge.
Ocean Rocks and Sediments Seafloor Spreading
El Campo Magnético de la Tierra Cuando se calientan por encima de una temperatura conocida como el punto de Curie, estos minerales magnéticos pierden su magnetismo. Sin embargo, cuando esos granos rico en hierro se enfrían por debajo de su punto de Curie (aproximadamente 585 ºC para la magnetita) se magnetizan de manera según una dirección paralela a las líneas de fuerzas magnéticas existentes en ese momento.
Magnetism Seafloor Spreading The Geomagnetic Time Scale Studies of continental basalt flows in the early 1960s revealed a pattern of magnetic reversals over geologic time. A magnetic reversal is a change in Earth’s magnetic field. A magnetic field that is the same as the present has normal polarity. A magnetic field that is opposite to the present has reversed polarity.
In places where the magnetic readings of the ocean floor matched Earth’s present field, a stronger-than- normal reading (+) was recorded. In places where the magnetic data were reversed in relation to Earth’s present magnetic field, a lower- than-normal reading (–) was recorded. Magnetism The Geomagnetic Time Scale Seafloor Spreading – Towing magnetometers behind ships to measure the magnetic field of the ocean floor revealed an interesting pattern.
Magnetism The Geomagnetic Time Scale Seafloor Spreading
Magnetism Magnetic Symmetry Seafloor Spreading – The positive and negative areas of the seafloor form a series of stripes that were parallel to ocean ridges. – The magnetic pattern on one side of the ridge is a mirror image of the pattern on the other side of the ridge.
Magnetism Magnetic Symmetry Seafloor Spreading – The magnetic data collected from the ocean floor matched the pattern of magnetic reversals that had been found in basalt flows on land. – From this match, scientists were able to determine the age of the ocean floor from a magnetic recording and quickly create isochron maps of the ocean floor. – An isochron is a line on a map that connects points that have the same age.
Magnetism Seafloor Spreading
An American scientist named Harry Hess proposed the theory of seafloor spreading. Seafloor Spreading – Magma is forced toward the crust along an ocean ridge and fills the gap that is created. Seafloor spreading states that new ocean crust is formed at ocean ridges and destroyed at deep- sea trenches.
Seafloor Spreading – Each cycle of spreading and the intrusion of magma results in the formation of another small section of ocean floor, which slowly moves away from the ridge. – When the magma hardens, a small amount of new ocean floor is added to Earth’s surface.
Seafloor Spreading The Missing Link Seafloor Spreading – Seafloor spreading was the missing link needed by Wegener to complete his model of continental drift. – Continents are not pushing through ocean crust, as Wegener proposed; they ride with ocean crust as it slowly moves away from ocean ridges.
Section Assessment 1.Match the following terms with their definitions. ___ magnetometer ___paleomagnetism ___ isochron ___ seafloor spreading Seafloor Spreading A.a device that can detect small changes in magnetic fields B.a line on a map that connects points that have the same age C.the study of Earth’s magnetic record D.a theory that states that new ocean crust is formed at ocean ridges and destroyed at deep- sea trenches A C B D
Section Assessment Seafloor Spreading 2.How does the distribution of ocean-floor sediments support the theory of seafloor spreading? The thickness of ocean-floor sediments increases with distance from an ocean ridge which indicates that the seafloor is older with distance.
Section Assessment 3.Identify whether the following statements are true or false. Seafloor Spreading ______ Earth’s magnetic field has reversed more than 20 times over the past five million years. ______ The oldest part of the seafloor is over 500 million years old. ______Alfred Wegener first proposed the theory of seafloor spreading. ______Shale provides an accurate record of ancient magnetism. true false
El Campo Magnético de la Tierra Cualquiera que haya utilizado una brújula para orientarse sabe que el campo magnético de la Tierra tiene un polo norte y un polo sur magnéticos. Líneas de fuerza invisibles atraviesan el planeta y se extienden de un polo magnético al otro. Ciertas rocas contienen minerales que sirven como brújulas fósiles. Estos minerales ricos en hierro, son abundantes en las coladas de lava de composición basáltica.
Magnetism Rocks containing iron-bearing minerals provide a record of Earth’s magnetic field. Paleomagnetism is the study of Earth’s magnetic record. Basalt, because it is rich in iron-bearing minerals, provides an accurate record of ancient magnetism. Seafloor Spreading
End of Section 2
– theory of plate tectonics – divergent boundary – rift valley – convergent boundary Objectives Explain the theory of plate tectonics. Compare and contrast the three types of plate boundaries and the features associated with each. Vocabulary Theory of Plate Tectonics – subduction – transform boundary
Theory of Plate Tectonics The theory of plate tectonics states that Earth’s crust and rigid upper mantle are broken into enormous moving slabs called plates. Theory of Plate Tectonics There are a dozen or so major plates and several smaller ones. Tectonic plates move in different directions and at different rates over Earth’s surface.
Theory of Plate Tectonics
Plate Boundaries Tectonic plates interact at places called plate boundaries. Theory of Plate Tectonics At some plate boundaries: – Plates come together, or converge – Plates move away from one another, or diverge – Plates move horizontally past one another
Plate Boundaries Divergent Boundaries Theory of Plate Tectonics – Divergent boundaries are places where two tectonic plates are moving apart. – Most divergent boundaries are found in rifts, or fault- bounded valleys, which form along the axis of an ocean ridge. – A rift valley, which is a narrow depression, is created when a divergent boundary forms on a continent.
Plate Boundaries Convergent Boundaries Theory of Plate Tectonics – Convergent boundaries are places where two tectonic plates are moving toward each other. – There are three types of convergent boundaries: 1.Oceanic crust converging with oceanic crust 2.Oceanic crust converging with continental crust 3.Continental crust converging and colliding with continental crust.
Plate Boundaries Convergent Boundaries Theory of Plate Tectonics
Plate Boundaries Convergent Boundaries Theory of Plate Tectonics – Subduction occurs when one of the two converging plates descends beneath the other. – A subduction zone forms when one oceanic plate, which has become denser as a result of cooling, descends below another plate creating a deep-sea trench. – The subducted plate descends into the mantle and melts. – Some of the magma forms new oceanic crust at the ridge or is forced back to the surface, forming an arc of volcanic islands that parallel the trench.
Plate Boundaries Convergent Boundaries Theory of Plate Tectonics – When an oceanic plate converges with a continental plate, the denser oceanic plate is subducted. – Oceanic-continental convergence produces a trench and a series of volcanoes along the edge of the continental plate. – Two continental plates collide when an ocean basin between converging oceanic and continental plates is entirely subducted. – Because continental rocks are too buoyant to be forced into the mantle, the colliding edges of the continents are crumpled and uplifted to form a mountain range.
Plate Boundaries Transform Boundaries Theory of Plate Tectonics – A transform boundary is a place where two plates slide horizontally past each other, deforming or fracturing the crust. – Transform boundaries are characterized by long faults and usually offset sections of ocean ridges. – The San Andreas Fault is an exception to the fact that transform boundaries rarely occur on continents.
Section Assessment 1.Match the following terms with their definitions. ___ divergent boundary ___ rift valley ___ convergent boundary ___ transform boundary ___subduction zone Theory of Plate Tectonics A.place where two tectonic plates are moving toward each other B.place where two tectonic plates are moving apart C.when one of two converging plates descends beneath the other D.place where two plates slide horizontally past each other E.result of a divergent boundary forming on a continent B E A D C
Section Assessment 2.What happens to an oceanic plate once it is subducted? What is created with the material? Theory of Plate Tectonics The subducted plate melts in the mantle. Some of the resulting magma is forced to the surface creating a series of volcanoes that are parallel to the subduction zone. Some of the magma is recycled into new oceanic crust at the ridge.
Section Assessment Theory of Plate Tectonics 3.Why does uplift occur when two continental plates converge? Give an example of this process. The rocks that make up a continental plate are too buoyant to be forced into the mantle. As a result, the colliding edges of the continents are crumpled and uplifted to form a mountain range such as the Himalayas.
End of Section 3
– ridge push – slab pull Objectives Explain the process of convection. Summarize how convection in the mantle is related to the movements of tectonic plates. Compare and contrast the processes of ridge push and slab pull. Vocabulary Causes of Plate Motions
The directions and rates of plate movements have been measured. Causes of Plate Motions What actually causes the plates to move is not well understood. One of the leading hypotheses proposes that large-scale motion in the mantle is the mechanism that drives the movement of tectonic plates.
Mantle Convection Convection is the transfer of thermal energy by the movement of heated matter. Causes of Plate Motions Convection currents in the mantle are thought to be the driving mechanism of plate movements. Convection currents in this part of the mantle are set in motion by the transfer of energy between Earth’s hot interior and its cooler exterior. It is hypothesized that these convection currents are probably set in motion by subducting slabs, thus causing plates to move.
Mantle Convection The rising part of a convection current spreads out as it reaches the upper mantle and causes both upward and lateral forces. Causes of Plate Motions These forces lift and split the lithosphere at divergent plate boundaries. The downward part of a convection current occurs where a sinking force pulls tectonic plates downward at convergent boundaries.
Mantle Convection Push and Pull Causes of Plate Motions – During the formation of an ocean ridge, forces in the mantle cause the asthenosphere to rise. – In a process called ridge push, the weight of the uplifted ridge is thought to push an oceanic plate toward the trench formed at the subduction zone. – In addition to ridge push, the horizontal flow at the top of a convection current could create drag on the lithosphere and thereby contribute to plate motion.
Mantle Convection Push and Pull Causes of Plate Motions – A sinking region of a mantle convection current could suck an oceanic plate downward into a subduction zone. – In a process called slab pull, the weight of a subducting plate helps pull the trailing lithosphere into the subduction zone.
Mantle Convection Push and Pull Causes of Plate Motions
Mantle Convection Unanswered Questions Causes of Plate Motions – There are unanswered questions about how these convection currents originate and what their actual sizes are. – Some geologists have suggested that subducted slabs, over time, might eventually reach Earth’s outer core. – Other remaining questions concern relationships between convection currents and the overlying plates. – Most studies show that the process of slab pull is the most important force driving tectonic plate motions.
Mantle Convection Unanswered Questions Causes of Plate Motions – A similar set of questions surround the formation of divergent continental plate boundaries. – One hypothesis is that large continental masses ultimately cause their own breakup by acting as insulating blankets. – The underlying mantle then becomes warmer and causes the upward leg of a convection current to develop, which eventually causes the continent to split.
Section Assessment 1.How might a convection current cause a divergent boundary? Causes of Plate Motions An upward flow in the mantle causes the asthenosphere to rise. This force causes the lithosphere to rise and split. As the plates separate, material rising from the mantle supplies the magma that hardens to form new ocean crust.
Section Assessment 2.How might a convection current cause a convergent boundary? Causes of Plate Motions A sinking region of a mantle convection current could suck an oceanic plate downward into a subduction zone. The weight of a subducting plate helps pull the trailing lithosphere into the subduction zone in a process called slab pull.
Section Assessment Causes of Plate Motions 3.How are slab push and slab pull related processes? Slab pull is thought to be the most important process driving tectonic plate motions. The material that is subducted through slab pull enters the convection current that drives slab push.
End of Section 4
Chapter Resources Menu Study Guide Section 17.1 Section 17.2 Section 17.3 Section 17.4 Chapter Assessment Image Bank
Section 17.1 Main Ideas The matching coastlines of continents on opposite sides of the Atlantic Ocean suggest that the continents were once joined. Continental drift states that Earth’s continents were joined as a single landmass that broke apart and sent the continents adrift. Wegener supported his hypothesis of continental drift with rock types, fossils, and ancient climatic data. His hypothesis was not accepted at first because he couldn’t explain how the continents moved or what caused their motion. Section 17.1 Study Guide
Section 17.2 Main Ideas Sonar and magnetic studies of ocean rocks and sediments led to the proposal of the theory of seafloor spreading. Magnetic patterns on the seafloor are symmetric in relation to ocean ridges, indicating that ocean crust on either side of the ridge is moving away from the ridge at essentially the same rate. During seafloor spreading, magma rises and hardens to form new crust, which becomes part of the ocean floor. Each cycle of spreading and intrusion results in the formation of another small section of ocean floor, which slowly moves away from the ridge. Section 17.2 Study Guide
Section 17.3 Main Ideas Plate tectonics states that Earth’s crust and rigid upper mantle are broken into large slabs of rock called plates, which move in different directions and at different rates over Earth’s surface. At divergent plate boundaries, plates move apart. At convergent boundaries, plates come together. At transform boundaries, plates slide horizontally past each other. High heat flow, volcanism, and earthquakes are associated with divergent boundaries; trenches, island arcs, and folded mountains with convergent boundaries; and faults and earthquakes with transform boundaries. Section 17.3 Study Guide
Section 17.4 Main Ideas Convection is the transfer of energy via the movement of heated matter. Convection currents in the mantle are the result of energy transfer between Earth’s hot interior and cooler exterior. Ridge push occurs when the elevation of a ridge pushes a plate toward a subduction zone. Slab pull occurs as the weight of the subducting plate pulls a plate into a subduction zone. Section 17.4 Study Guide
1.Pangaea begin to break apart ____ years ago? a.65 millionc.200 million b.135 million.d.400 million Multiple Choice Chapter Assessment Alfred Wegener hypothesized that Pangaea began to break apart 200 million years ago based on geologic evidence.
2.The oldest oceanic crust is generally located near what feature? a.ridgec.abyssal plain b.trenchd.rift Subduction occurs in a trench, meaning that oceanic crust at a trench is older than any crust closer to a ridge. A rift is a valley that forms along the axis of a ridge. It is in the rift that new seafloor is created. Multiple Choice Chapter Assessment
Multiple Choice 3.The San Andreas Fault is an example of what kind of boundary? a.divergentc.transform b.convergentd.rift Chapter Assessment Two plates sliding past each other form the San Andreas Fault. The San Andreas Fault is a rare example of a transform boundary that occurs on a continent.
Multiple Choice 4.Which device was instrumental in determining the age of the ocean floor? a.magnetometerc.sonar b.isochrond.seismometer Chapter Assessment A magnetometer allowed scientists to match patterns magnetic patterns in the seafloor with known patterns and ages of land-based material. From this they could determine the age of the ocean floor.
Multiple Choice 5.The oldest part of the seafloor is approximately ____ years old. a.70 million c.260 million b.180 milliond.430 million Chapter Assessment The discovery that the seafloor is geologically young was one of the major factors in proposing the theory of seafloor spreading. There are examples, for comparison, of continental rocks that are 3.8 billion years old.
Short Answer 6.Why are there more volcanoes around the rim of the Pacific Ocean than the Atlantic Ocean? Chapter Assessment There are subduction zones located around the periphery of the Pacific Ocean. In the Atlantic Ocean, the seafloor is spreading, but with the exception of Caribbean, there are no subduction zones.
Short Answer 7.Why was Wegener’s hypothesis of continental drift rejected when it was first proposed? Chapter Assessment Two unanswered questions—what forces could move continents and how continents could move without shattering—were the main reasons that the hypothesis of continental drift was rejected when it was first proposed.
True or False 8.Identify whether the following statements are true or false. ______ Wegener called his hypothesis Pangaea. ______ Magnetic reversal events are longer in duration than epochs. ______There are around a dozen major plates. ______ Slab push is a process that is associated with an ocean ridge. ______ Folded mountain ranges are the result of a convergent boundary involving oceanic crust and continental crust. Chapter Assessment false true false
Image Bank Chapter 17 Images
Image Bank Chapter 17 Images
Image Bank Chapter 17 Images
Image Bank Chapter 17 Images
Image Bank Chapter 17 Images
Image Bank Chapter 17 Images
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