Presentation on theme: "World War I The Global War. Journal #1 Take a few minutes: – How do you believe imperialism would come to shape World War I? – Here are some things to."— Presentation transcript:
World War I The Global War
Journal #1 Take a few minutes: – How do you believe imperialism would come to shape World War I? – Here are some things to keep in mind: Note the location of different colonies (Think about the chart) Note those who were involved in imperialism Note why there was often conflict
Connecting Past to Present The MAIN Reasons for the WWI Starting Define… M – Militarism A – Alliance System I – Industrialization/Imperialism N – Nationalism
Militarism Increase in: – Glorification of the military – All things militaristic – Ongoing arms race – All nations prepared for war by 1914
Alliance System Major Nations Allied Powers Great Britain Russia France Italy (1915) USA (1917) Central Powers Germany Austria-Hungary Ottoman Empire
Terms of an Alliance “If Italy or Germany was attacked by France, each would aid the other. If Austria was attacked by Russia, Italy would remain neutral, although Austria would aid Italy if she was attacked by France. If one of the parties was attacked by two or more powers, the other signatories were to come to her aid. And, at Italy’s request, both Austria and Germany agreed that in no case would the Treaty operate against Britain, but as the war loomed closer these disputes became less important as attention focused back to Europe.”
Machine Guns Hiram Maxim created the first portable machine gun. Fifty Rhodesian police officers fought off 5,000 tribesmen with only four machine guns MGs devastates the battlefield in many way - Rapid fire over no man’s land - Enfilading fire across trenches
Gas Attacks Mustard Gas – Yellowish Brown, smells like Mustard plant. Formed blisters on skin, throat, lungs, & closed airways, blindness. Chlorine Gas – Yellowish Green, smells like Pineapple & pepper. Pain in eyes, lungs, suffocation ensues.
Tanks, Artillery, Airplanes, Zepplins World War I Firsts
U-Boats “Unterseebooten” – Germany 1 st to use submarine warfare dsd
Imperialism Conflict due to colonialism In Africa, every European nation, but Russia & Austria held colonies there. Conflicts over regions between France and Italy or France and Germany.
Imperialism & Industrialization Imperialism Land expansion & desire for more land, power Industrialization Allows a nation to build upon what they have & become more powerful
Nationalism Belief that aligns one with a strong identification of a group or nation. Germans were proud of their military; France upset at the loss of the Alsace & Lorraine in the Franco-Prussian War
Domestic Problems Nations involved were experiencing problems: – England v. Ireland – Russian Uprisings
BLANK MAP! Take this time to fill out the map (Europe in 1914 side) to the best of your ability.
The Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand
Gavrilo Princip & The Black Hand
Find Serbia & Austria-Hungary
Austrian Ultimatum to Serbia 1.Serbia was to investigate the murder 2.Austria-Hungary was also to investigate 3.Serbia was to suppress any & all anti-Austrian propaganda 4.Take steps to rout any domestic terrorist groups within Serbia Austria-Hungary demanded an answer within 48 hours
CRASH COURSE WWI Crash Course
Time to Enlist. The Trenches Await!
Who is this man?
He Is WWI Iron-Cross Winning War Hero…
Key Terms to Understand War of Attrition? Causalities? Selective Service/Conscription/Draft?
The Schlieffen Plan
Trench Warfare Trench Warfare - History Channel
Dangers of Trench Warfare Trench foot Trench Rats Lice Enfilading Fire Rebuilding Trenches “Over the top”
Over the Top An offensive consisted of days of shelling the enemy ’ s defenses followed by an order to go “ Over the Top ” and into No Man ’ s Land Offensives were very ineffective and resulted in huge losses of life Battles at Verdun and Somme resulted in massive loss of life
Somme & Verdun SommeVerdun
Somme & Verdun Battle of Somme July 1, 1916 – November 18, 1916 (4 months, 2 weeks, 3 days) Battle of Verdun February 21, 1916 – December 18, 1916 (9 months, 3 weeks, 6 days)
Battles Battle of Somme – Allies: 623,907 casualties | 782 aircraft lost – Germany: 465,000 (400,000 to 500,000) – Indecisive Result – 2.5 million troops in 150 divisions Battle of Verdun – Allies: 542,000 casualties (362,000 dead) – Germany: 434,000 casualties (336,000 dead) – French Victory – 2.5 million troops in 125 divisions
Sinking of the RMS Lusitania 128 Americans Dead
Revolution in Russia 1917, bread riots break out in St. Petersburg. Tsar was overthrown. Lenin took control & signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk.
The Zimmerman Telegram
US Joins The War April 1917, Pres. Wilson declares war: – “We have no selfish ends to serve… to make the world safe for democracy.”
US Joins The War Mobilized by 1918 – 2 million strong – Little troop involvement – 116,708 deaths – 205,690 wounded Fourteen Points – Called for free trade, free seas, reduction of arms, end to secret treaties – A plan to end warfare entirely
The League of Nations “A general association of nations must be formed under specific covenants for the purpose of affording mutual guarantees of political independence and territorial integrity to great and small states alike.”
War Ends Germany attempts a final push – Gain 40 miles US Troops assist Allied forces – German forces removed from France & Belgium – Riots begin in Germany due to poverty
Costs of War Europe was shattered – Flu Epidemic of 1918 killing 20 million worldwide – Battle zones left entire sections of nations from France to Russia in rubble – Reconstruction & War Debt = $$$ German Reparations
Costs of War Money Great Britain – $55 billion France – $45 billion Russia – $25 billion USA – $35 billion Germany – $60 billion Austria-Hungary – $25 billion Life Great Britain – 1,115,597 killed France – 1,397,800 killed Russia – 1,811,000 to 2,254,369 killed USA – 116,708 killed Germany – 2,050,897 killed Austria-Hungary – 1,100,000 killed
Paris Peace Conference (L to R) David Lloyd George (UK), Vittorio Orlando (ITA), Georges Clemenceau (FRA), Woodrow Wilson (USA)
Paris Peace Conference Meeting of more than 32 countries to decide what would come of the defeated Central Powers (GER & RUS not invited) – Reshaping borders – Division of owned colonies across the world The Treaty of Versailles – Stiff financial penalties/blame to Germany "Germany End WWI Reparations 92 Years, 59m Final Payment” ($442 billion in 2013 currency)
Outcome of the Paris Peace Conference With so many nations involved, these meetings proved difficult. Creation of Czechoslovakia, Austria, Hungary, Yugoslavia Colonies outside of Europe still remained colonies