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1By: Kadish Hagley and Cecil Brooks Jr. Taal VolcanoBy: Kadish Hagley and Cecil Brooks Jr.Department of Geology,Colby College
2Basic Facts and Location Taal is on Luzon Island, Philippines, 14°0′7″N 120°59′34″EPacific Ring of FireOn the Eurasian Plate50 km (31 mi) south of the capital city, Manila (pop. 12,000,000)Second most active volcano in the Philippines (33 Historical Eruptions)
3Tectonic Setting Taal lies on a subduction zone. The Eurasian Plate is being subducted underneath the Philippine Mobile Belt (which contains the Philippine Sea plate and the Manila Trench).
4Taal’s DimensionsTaal is one of the shortest active volcanoes in the world!Highest Elevation: 311 m (1,020 ft.)Area of Caldera: Approximately 15 x 20 square kilometers (115.8 square miles)
5Taal’s Form…….is Tricky! Located on an island (Volcano Island), within a caldera/lake (Taal Lake) within an island (Luzon)Relatively young; formed only 500,000 years agoConsidered a stratovolcano or a complex volcano of a hydroclastic natureTaal Volcano contains a lake called Crater LakeCrater lake is the largest lake on an island in a lake on an island IN THE WORLD! (Give me a break!)Get info of Crater lake
11Precursors to Eruptions 1. Increase in frequency of quakes with occasional felt events accompanied by rumbling sounds2. Temperature and level of Main Crater Lake increases3. New thermal vents develop and/or old ones reactivate4. Ground swells or inflation and ground fissuring5. Temperature of ground probe holes at Mt. Tabaro rises6. Sulfuric odor with acidic fumes7. Fish die and vegetation dries up
12Eruption of 1911Began on January 30, 1911, this eruption is considered one of the worst volcanic disasters in historyThe eruption killed about 1400 people in Manila, 702 Cattle, destroyed 543 homesMany deaths were attributed to the ½ inch ashfallVEI= 3.7 (Pinatubo VEI = 6)75,000,000 cubic meters of solid matterAllowed Taal to be classified as a “decade volcano” to incentivize study to prevent future disaster
13Recent Volcanic Activity 2012 Unrest60 Earthquakes recorded in a 24 hour period; highest intensity earthquake was a III2011 UnrestPlaced on level 2 alert in April of 2011 due to intrusion of magma to surfaceSites close to volcano closed off to visitors due to toxic gas (carbon dioxide) scare2010 UnrestLoud hissing sounds heard by manyLarge increase in crater lake temperatureMagmatic intrusion2008 Earthquakes10 earthquakes were recorded at TaalMention the geopolitics at end of slide
14Diverse Range of Volcanic Products Pyroclastic lava flowsToxic gases (Mostly CO2 and Sulphur)Lake tsunamisLakeshore floodingLaharsEarthquakesGround fissuringSubsidenceLandslidesTurbulent ash flows
15Diverse Range of Volcanic Products A series of explosive eruptions has created large deposits of ignimbrite, a volcanic product typical of pyroclastic flows.Significant amounts of olivine basalt and andesite can be found on Taal in addition to ignimbrite.
16Tourism Tourism is a big part of Taal, especially in its caldera. Tourists can travel to the top of the volcano by horseback or foot.Despite trace amounts sulfuric acid, tourists can bathe in the lake.Well received trip on TripAdvisor: 4/5 stars, 79% of people would recommend.There are a variety of excursions and day trips to Taal from Manila, San Nicolas, and Talisay.
18Geothermal ActivityThe Philippines is currently the world’s second-largest producer of geothermal energy (next to the United States).Six new geothermal power contracts were approved by the Philippines’ Department of Energy in 2011.Despite the presence of a hydrothermal reservoir and natural geothermal activity under Taal, there is currently no human collection of energy from Taal’s volcanic activity.
19MonitoringPrincipal Monitoring done by the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology or PHIVOLCS.Monitoring Methods:1. Seismic monitoring (number of volcanic quakes and tremors)2. Visual observations3. Ground deformation (EDM, precise leveling, tilt)4. Main Crater Lake chemistry, temperature and level