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World War I and the Russian Revolution

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1 World War I and the Russian Revolution
Chapter 17 World War I and the Russian Revolution

2 Essential Questions Could War War I have been avoided?
How did new military technologies make warfare more destructive? Did the allies lay the seeds for future problems in the peace settlement of 1919? If you had been living in Russia in 1917, would you have joined the revolution?

3 Key Vocabulary Imperialism League of Nations Nationalism
Mandate System Militarism Tsar Nicholas II Alliance System Russian Revolution Franz Ferdinand Vladimir Lenin Trench Warfare Bolsheviks Armenian Genocide October Revolution Woodrow Wilson Russian Civil War Fourteen Points U.S.S.R. (Soviet Union)

4 Important Ideas Imperialism, nationalism, militarism, and the alliance system prepared the way for the outbreak of World War I: Imperialism: Europe’s Great Powers competed over colonies, markets and military power Militarism: Britain and Germany competed to have the best navy. Russia, Germany, and France competed for the strongest army on the continent. Political leaders adopted militaristic values and depended on military leaders. Military leaders believed it was better to attack first than to wait to be attacked. Germany feared being surrounded by France and Russia. Nationalism: Nationalist movements among Slavic peoples in multi-ethic Austria-Hungary threatened to break the empire apart. Alliances: Europe divided into two competing alliance systems (Germany and Austria-Hungary vs. France, Russia and Britain). Once one member became involved in a war, the alliance system threatened to escalate the war to involve all members.

5 B. The “July Crisis”: The assassination of Archduke France Ferdinand by Slav nationalists in July 1914 set off a chain reaction. Austrian leaders blamed Serbia. When Austria invaded Serbia, Russia entered the war to protect Serbia. Germany next entered the war because of its alliance with Austria-Hungary. Britain and France finally entered the war because of their alliance with Russia. C. New weapons, like machine guns, airplanes, submarines, and poison gas, made World War I the most destructive and deadliest war up to that time. D. Woodrow Wilson and other allied leaders negotiated the peace during the Paris Peace Conference. The Treaty of Versailles treated Germany harshly. The treaty also created a League of Nations and several new countries.

6 E. Despite some changes, Russia was still an autocratic society with deep social divisions. Russia was unprepared for the war. Shortages of food and materials helped trigger the Russian Revolution, in which the Tsar was overthrown. F. The Bolsheviks, led by Vladimir Lenin, overthrew the new Russian government in the October Revolution. Lenin then established the first Communist government. The Communists won the Civil War that followed.

7 The World on the Eve of World War I
1900 – Europeans were enjoying great peace and prosperity No major war on continent for half a century In other places in the world, problems were occurring Turkey, Mexico, China, and Russia Reformers influenced by European ideas were outraged at sharp social divisions and authoritarian governments

8 In Austria-Hungary (Austria’s name after a compromise with Hungary in 1867), different ethnic minorities dreamt of independence and establishing their own nation-states

9 Unable to reform through moderate means, some reformers turned to forming secret revolutionary movements After 1900 – different parts of the world exploded in social revolution Russia – Tsar forced to create a national assembly Turkey – Sultan overthrown in 1908 Mexico – revolution overthrew country’s military dictator in 1910 China – nationalist reformers overthrew the emperor in 1912

10 “Great War” (World War I)
The powerful forces of nationalism and reform, which affected Russia, Turkey, Mexico, and China, had an equally explosive impact on the multi-ethnic empire of Austria-Hungary. Events in Austria-Hungary would bring the rest of Europe into armed conflict “Great War” (World War I) New technologies made warfare more destructive then ever before Imperial governments and the old class system of Europe were eliminated

11 The peace that followed saw the momentary triumph of democracy, national self-determination and the creation of a new international peace organization Rise of communism and fascism

12 The Underlying Causes of WWI

13 Militarism Occurs when military values and goals take over civilian society End of 19th century – societies had become more militaristic European countries tried to build up its army Kings wore military uniforms Generals became influential in government Germany and Britain competed to build the most powerful navy

14 Military planning played a big role in the outbreak of WWI
Because it took time to assemble and move armies on railroads, military leaders thought it was better to attack first than to wait to be attacked

15 Alliances By 1914, Europe had come to be divided into two large alliances Triple Alliance – Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy Triple Entente – France and Great Britain Although these alliances sought to preserve the existing balance of power, any dispute involving any two of these countries threatened to drag in all others

16 Nationalism Nationalism is the belief that:
Each ethnic group should have its own nation Citizens of existing nation-states that they should promote their nation’s interests Their own nation is superior to others

17 Nationalism encouraged rivalries between France, Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Russia
Spread of nationalism also led to the creation of new independent nations in the Balkans Greece, Serbia, Bulgaria, Albania, and Romania (area where Ottoman’s once ruled) Many of these new countries were unstable : series of local wars that threatened to involve the larger powers


19 Imperialism Imperialism is the political and economic control of one state or people over another Many European powers believed that the sign of a great power was possession of overseas colonies Created competition between European powers for colonies in Africa and Asia Competing economic interests

20 1900 – ¼ of the world was under British rule
German industrialization threatened British economic supremacy Russian interests in the Balkans threatened both Austria-Hungary and Turkey

21 Assassination In July 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, the heir to the Austrian Empire, was assassinated by a member of a terrorist group, the Black Hand, a Slave nationalist group Triggered WWI Austria-Hungary invaded Serbia, who had aided the assassins Russia entered the conflict to protect Serbia Germany entered the war to fulfill its treaty obligations to protect Austria Finally, Britain and France came in to honor their alliance with Russia

22 What began as a minor regional crisis in the Balkans had quickly escalated into a major European conflict Italy refused to join the Central Powers since Austria had attacked first The Ottoman Empire quickly joined the Central Powers to oppose Russia, while Bulgaria joined to oppose Serbia

23 Fighting the War To avoid a two-front war, German war plans called for Germany to march through the lowlands of neutral Belgium and to take Paris quickly before Russia could enter the war Germans advanced but were stopped before reaching Paris

24 When the war broke out President Woodrow Wilson called upon Americans to take no sides and to remain neutral

25 New and improved weapons were used in fighting the war
Machine gun, poison gas, submarines, and airplanes Made it easier to defend positions than to attack

26 Trench warfare was a new and strange form of warfare the world had never seen
Both sides dug ditches to created fortified positions Trenches separated by fields of barbed wire and mines known as “no man’s land” Soldiers spent years in the trenches, facing shelling from artillery fire for hours each day Since neither side could advance, fighting lines became stationary


28 Sometimes, soldiers would face attacks with poison gas
Casualty rates were high Tanks were first introduced but were still too primitive to be effective Overhead, the first airplanes were used to see what was going on across enemy lines

29 In the oceans, German submarines, called U-boats, were used to attack large ships
Britain placed a blockade around Germany and Austria-Hungary in an attempt to starve them into submission Russia became isolated from the West Each side tried to mobilize all its resources, turning the war into a “total war”



32 The United States Helps Win the War
Serbia, Belgium, Italy, Romania, Greece, and Portugal joined the Allied Powers Although the United States was officially neutral, Americans were sympathetic to Britain and France American ships sending supplies to Allies were attacked by Germany submarines 1917 – The United States entered the war after RMS Lusitania was torpedoed by a German U-boat

33 President Wilson announced America’s war aims in the Fourteen Points
Redraw the map of Europe so that each nationality had its own state Demanded the creation of an independent Poland Demanded the freedom of seas, an end to secret diplomacy, and the creation of the League of Nations America’s entry into the war broke the deadlock in Europe November 1918 – Germans surrendered

34 The Aftermath of World War I
The human and material costs of WWI were staggering Millions of people were killed or injured Famine and malnutrition threatened many regions The governments of Russia and Germany were overthrown

35 The Paris Peace Conference (1919)
Believing that President Wilson’s offer would be the basis of the peace settlement, Germans agreed to end the war and to overthrow the Kaiser. Allied leaders met in Paris to negotiate the peace (left to right) Great Britain – David Lloyd George Italy – Vittorio Orlando France – Georges Clemenceau United States – Woodrow Wilson

36 The Treaty of Versailles (1919)
Ended WWI Concluded peace with Germany Other treaties dealt with Austria-Hungary and Turkey Final peace terms turned out to be extremely harsh on Germany




40 An independent Poland, Hungary, and Czechoslovakia were created
The former nation of Serbia was combined with parts of Austria-Hungary to create the new nation of Yugoslavia German colonies were given to Britain or France as mandates

41 Territories ruled like colonies but subject to supervision of the League of Nations
According to the Covenant of the League of Nations, its purpose was to promote disarmament and prevent war Had no military power, so it depended on the help of its member states Consisted of a Council, representing the Great Powers, and an assembly in which all member states were represented Created a new Court of International Justice


43 World War I and the Middle East
World War I also led to the end of the Ottoman Empire The Sultan had joined the Central Powers during the war because Turkey opposed Russia

44 The Armenian Massacres
For centuries, Armenian Christians had lived in the Ottoman Empire Some Armenians wanted an independent Armenian state The Ottoman government began to disarm its Armenian citizens, fearing they might be sympathetic to Christian Russia

45 Armenian political leaders, educators, writers, and clergy were jailed and then managed or shot
Turkish soldiers gathered over a million Armenian men, women, children and sent them on death marches into the Syrian desert Firing squads, burnings, drownings, poisons, and drugs

46 After the war, Allies took away Turkish possessions in Arabia, Syria, and Palestine
To gain Arab support during the fighting, the British government had promised Arab groups their independence 1919 – these areas were instead divided between Britain and France was mandates under the League of Nations :Uprisings in Egypt and Arabia finally led to their independence

47 The allies also planned to take way much of the Turkish heartland in Asia Minor
General Mustafa Kemal, known as Ataturk, organized resistance to Allied attempts to tear apart Turkey A new parliament declared the birth of Turkey as a secular state After two years of fighting, Ataturk preserved Turkey in Asia Minor and abolished the Sultanate in 1923


49 The Russian Revolution
One of the most important consequences of World War I was the Russian Revolution of 1917

50 The Roots of the Revolution
The Russian Tsars (emperors) ruled as autocrats (absolute rulers) Secret police Strict censorship New ideas were repressed The vast majority of Russians were illiterate serfs who lived in poverty Remained bound to the land, long after serfdom had been abolished in other Western European countries A small group of nobles owned thousands of serfs and enjoyed vast wealth Despite earlier efforts to introduce Western ideas and technology into Russia, social conditions kept the country economically under-developed Russian reformers, inspired by the example of Western Europe, hoped to abolish serfdom and modernize the country

51 Emancipation of the Serfs
19th century - Acting as protector of the Orthodox Christians, Russia waged a series of wars with the Ottoman Empire : Russia was engaged in the Crimean War England and France supported Turkey against Russia Despite its large army, Russia lost the war After the Crimean War, Tsar Alexander II decided to listen to reformers and emancipated (liberated) the serfs in 1861 Wanted to introduce a new assembly and other reforms, but was assassinated by Russian revolutionaries, putting an abrupt end to all attempts at reform The freed serfs remained landless peasants, paying rents to their former owners Later Tsars returned to a policy of opposing all change and using harsh repression to maintain the existing social order

52 “Autocracy, Nationality, and Orthodoxy”
Russian nationalism had important effects on its conservative rulers Identified empire with autocracy, the Russian nationality, and the Russian Orthodox Church The government acted as the protector of new Slav states in the Balkans The government adopted a policy called Russification Forced non-Russian people such as the Finns, Poles, and the peoples of Central Asia to adopt the Russian language and culture Jews were persecuted in anti-semitic pogroms Officially encouraged persecutions against Jews

53 Prelude to the Revolution
1900 – Russian Empire stretched from Eastern Europe to the Pacific Ocean Russia remained backwards (compared to Western Europe) Peasants and factory workers lived in conditions of terrible poverty Landowning nobles enjoyed lives of wealth and leisure The autocratic Tsars opposed democratic reform Secret revolutionary societies had formed among members of the educated elite

54 The Revolution of 1905 1904-1905: Russo-Japanese War
Russia defeated by Japan Worsened crisis in Russia

55 1905 – “Bloody Sunday” Troops of the tsar trampled on unarmed demonstrators in St. Petersburg causing revolutions to break out across country Peasants seized lands, while workers in the cities engaged in demonstrations and general strikes Tsar Nicholas II finally granted limited reforms Duma – elected legislature Only the very wealthy could vote

56 The Russian Revolution 1917
The years after 1905 showed some signs of improvement, but Russia was not prepared for the strains of war 1914 – Nicholas II brought Russia into WWI against Austria- Hungary and Germany Poorly trained and badly equipped Russian soldiers suffered disastrous defeats Troops even sent to battle without ammunition and told to pick up weapons of their dead comrades Defeats caused widespread discontent in the army Russian industries were incapable of producing needed weapons and supplies Food supplies dangerously low

57 The “February Revolution” (March 1917)
1917 – worker-led food riots broke out in cities across Russia March 1917 – soldiers refused to fire on striker workers Nicholas realized he was powerless to govern the nation and gave up his throne Leaders of the Duma declared Russia a republic However, the provisional government that replaced the Tsar failed to win support of the people when it refused to withdraw from the war

58 The “October Revolution” (November 1917)
Vladimir Lenin was a follower of Karl Marx, living in exile in Switzerland Germans sent him back to Russia hoping he would cause unrest in Russia Would help end the war on the Eastern front, allowing Germany to concentrate on defeating the Western allies

59 Bolsheviks – Lenin’s supporters
Promised “Peace, Bread, and Land” Peace – soldiers Bread – workers Land – peasants November 1917 – Bolsheviks seized power by force in a second revolution

60 The Bolsheviks changed the name of their political party to the Communists
They also changed the name of their country to the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R.) or “Soviet Union” Russia had become the world’s first Communist country

61 The Russian Civil War (1919-1921)
Once in power, the Communists immediately Withdrew from WWI against Germany Transferred millions of acres of land to the poorer peasants Nationalized all industries (taken over by the government)

62 A civil war followed between those who supported Lenin’s program and those who wished to return to the rule of the Tsar “Reds” – supporters of Lenin Were victorious (secured the position of the new Communist government) Had support of the peasants and workers “Whites” – supporters of a Tsar Had support from the United States After winning the civil war, Lenin executed Tsar Nicholas II and his family in cold blood so that the monarchy could never been restored

63 Lenin’s New Economic Policy
After half a decade of turmoil, the Russian economy was in shambles Now that the Bolsheviks had gained political control, they needed to deliver on their promises to feed the people By 1920 – Lenin realized that changes to his program were needed Peasants were no longer growing enough food, since they were afraid it would be seized by government 1921 – A severe famine was facing Russia Lenin came to the conclusion that Communist policies must be temporarily put aside to avoid disaster

64 1921 – New Economic Policy (N.E.P)
Lenin’s goal were to Keep the peasants satisfied Keep the Bolsheviks in power Stabilize the economy 1921 – New Economic Policy (N.E.P) Some private ownership was permitted in small-scale manufacturing and agriculture Government continued to control major industries Slowly increased production 1924 – Lenin died Joseph Stalin gains control of Russia and ends the New Economic Policy


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