Presentation on theme: "By: Aayza Asim, Ariana Macau, and DaSom. A military stalemate strategy Soldiers lived in deep trenches and underground bunkers Troops fought to."— Presentation transcript:
A military stalemate strategy Soldiers lived in deep trenches and underground bunkers Troops fought to break through enemy lines by attacking in suicide charges into machine gun fire The first trenches were hurriedly made as people expected a short war The trenches were holes dug by soldiers to protect themselves from the enemy Often flooded and collapsed As the front line stabilized, these trenches became deeper
Trench construction was difficult It took nearly 6 hours for 450 men to construct 250 meters of trench. After this, they would have to add the other materials necessary: barbed wire, board walks, and sand bags
Advances in firepower did not match advances in mobility; resulting in the invention of trench warfare Defender held the advantage In World War I, both sides constructed trenches with dugout systems opposing each other along a front No Man’s Land was fully exposed to artillery fire from both sides Germany used reinforced concrete to construct deep, shellproof, ventilated dugouts France relied on artillery and reserves, not entrenchment
Consisted of three parallel lines: 1.Front Trench: point at which a communication trench intersected 2.Support Trench: the battalion would retreat when the front trench was attacked 3.Third Reserve Trench: reserve troops assembled for a counter-attack if the front trenches were breeched
The barbed wire removed any chance of a surprise attack since the other side would always have plenty of warning Reconnaissance aircrafts could spot troops on the roads leading up to the trenches Trenches were very difficult to capture because a trench system consisted of at least three lines of trenches the increased fire-power made frontal attacks suicidal and made cavalry useless, and there was plenty of warning before a surprise attack.
The trenches of World War One were decidedly unhygienic Pests roamed around the land, including giant rats Limited access to running water The toilets of the trenches were usually just large buckets in a side trench Dead bodies littered the land, and continuous gunfire was heard all around Trench foot Blindness or burns from mustard gas Trench fever was found to be caused by lice In the last year of the war, the "Spanish Flu" hit the trenches of Europe
Usually about 12 feet (3.7 m) deep Never straight Dug in a zigzagging or stepped pattern Dugouts would be built in the rear of the support trench British dugouts were usually 8 to 16 feet (2.4 to 4.9 m) deep German dugouts were typically deeper, usually a minimum of 12 feet (3.7 m) deep and sometimes dug three stories down, with concrete staircases to reach the upper levels To allow a soldier to see out of the trench without exposing his head, a loophole could be built into the parapet
Entrenching A man would stand on the surface and dig downwards Most efficient Allowed a larger digging party to dig the full length of the trench simultaneously Left the diggers exposed above ground and could only be carried out at specific times of the day Sapping Involves extending the trench by digging away at the end face Only one or two men could work on the trench at a time Diggers are not exposed Tunneling A “roof” of soil was left while the trench was being built and then later removed when the trench was ready to be used The trench would require constant maintenance due to weather and shelling
Created a "stalemate" between the Triple Entente and the Triple Alliance) Made the fighting harder A combination of old military techniques and modern technology Developed as a response to the introduction of certain weapons, such as machine guns and tanks.
“The water in the trenches through which we waded was alive with a multitude of swimming frogs. Red slugs crawled up the side of the trenches and strange beetles with dangerous looking horns wriggled along dry ledges and invaded the dugouts, in search of the lice that infested them.” (unknown journalist) “If you have never had trench foot described to you, I will explain. Your feet swell to two to three times their normal size and go completely dead. You can stick a bayonet into them and not feel a thing. If youare lucky enough not to lose your feet and the swelling starts to go down, it is then that the most indescribable agony begins. I have heard men cry and scream with pain and many have had to have their feet and legs amputated. I was one of the lucky ones, but one more day in that trench and it may have been too late.” (Harry Roberts)
Lieutenant Bernard Pitt, letter to his parents (25th December, 1915) What is life like in the trenches, well, muddy, and cramped, and filthy. Everything gets covered with mud; you can't wash, for water has to be fetched for a mile. There is no room, and if you walk upright in many of the trenches, you run grave risks; and you sleep, huddled together, unable to stretch. All day long shells and rifle bullets go banging and whistling, and from dark to midnight the Huns fire rifle- grenades and machine-guns at us. Private Victor Wheeler, a Canadian soldier, was involved in digging some of the Allies first trenches. With pick and shovel we dug trenches through beautiful fields of grain, fully realising what damage we were doing to the farmers' hopes of reaping small harvests that would enable them to stem hunger during the coming winter. The patriarch with his ox-drawn plough, the matronly gleaner, and the young woman gathering grass and leaves, roots and truffles, stood arms akimbo, wordlessly, helplessly, hopelessly watching. The depressing effect on the morale of the men - to many of whom raising grain on the Western prairie also meant their livelihood - could not be easily dismissed.
Credits Aazya Asim PowerPoint, What They Are, Construction, Illnesses, Significance Ariana Macau History, Trench Systems, Specifications, Building Ways DaSom Lim Difficulties, Primary Sources, Quotes