Presentation on theme: " M ilitarism- policy of building up a strong military to prepare for war. A lliances- agreements (friendships) between nations to provide aid and protect."— Presentation transcript:
M ilitarism- policy of building up a strong military to prepare for war. A lliances- agreements (friendships) between nations to provide aid and protect on another N ationalism- extreme pride in one’s country I mperialism- when one country takes over another country economically and politically A ssassination- of Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand from Austria-Hungary by a Serbian nationalist.
Increase in Defense Expenditure CountryPercentage France10% Britain13% Russia39% Germany73%
What does this political cartoon mean? "The Chain of Friendship", is an American cartoon from 1914 depicting the web of alliances, captioned, "If Austria attacks Serbia, Russia will fall upon Austria, Germany upon Russia, and France and England upon Germany."
ALLIESCENTRAL POWERS Britain France Russia Serbia Germany Austria-Hungary Ottoman Empire (Turkey) The Powers known as the Allies in World War I were predominantly: Great Britain, France, Russia and Italy. Italy initially had a treaty with Germany, but recanted and secretly allied with the Allied Powers. Italy
Nationalism became a widespread force in Europe during the 19 th century. Its is often defined as, “pride in one’s country,” but its represented more than that. It was a growing sense of pride that people felt, which caused them to desire the best for their nation. This desire was at the root of making European problems.
Great Britain, Germany, and France needed foreign markets after the increase in manufacturing caused by the Industrial Revolution. These countries compete for economic expansion in Africa. Several crises foreshadowed the war involved the clash of Germany against Britain and France
ASSASSINATION of Archduke Franz Ferdinand from Austria-Hungary by a Serbian nationalist.
New weapons crippled the “frozen front” due to Industrial Revolution. Poison gas (mustard & chlorine gas) Hand grenades Flame throwers Tanks Airplanes Machine Guns Long Range Guns Subs (U-Boats) Trench Warfare
Elaborate systems of defense barbed wire Concrete machine gun nests Mortar batteries Troops lived in holes underground
Offensive attacks included: Going over the top into “No Mans Land” Soldiers faced shell fire, machine guns, and poison gas. Retreat back to trench
Every soldier carried iron rations- emergency food that consisted of a can of bully beef, biscuits and a tin of tea and sugar A single pair of rats could produce up to 880 offspring in a year A total of 3,894 men in the British Army were convicted of self-inflicted wounds. A firing squad offense-none were executed, but all served prison terms. The British army treated 20,000 soldiers for trench foot during the winter of
One-third of all casualties on the Western Front may have been killed or wounded in a trench. A lit candle was fairly effective in removing lice, but the skill of burning the lice without setting yourself on fire was difficult to learn. Soldiers in the trenches often depended on impure water collected from shell-holes or other cavities, causing disease.
1917 – Russia surrenders (a separate peace) U.S. joins the war on the Allied side Nov. 11, 1918 Armistice
Allied PowersCentral Powers 42 million served23 million served 22 million casualties15 million casualties
Germany surrendered. Allies impose the Treaty of Versailles Declares Germany was guilty for the war. Germany must pay reparations to Allies This sets the stage for WWII The League of Nations was formed to try to prevent war in the future.
The Big Four Woodrow Wilson USA David Lloyd-George Great Britain Georges Clemenceau France Vittorio Orlando Italy
The Treaty of Versailles June 1919
What were the terms of the Treaty of Versailles? Germany’s armed forces : German army reduced to 100,000 men. Germany was not allowed to have tanks. Germany was not allowed an airforce 100,000
The area known as the Rhineland was to be demilitarized. The German navy was to have no submarines or large battle-ships
Territorial Losses Germany lost ALL of her overseas colonies Alsace-Lorraine was given to France
"The Allied and Associated Governments affirm, and Germany accepts, the responsibility of Germany and her Allies for causing all the loss and damage to which the Allied and Associate Governments and their nationals have been subjected as a consequence of a war imposed upon them by the aggression of Germany and her Allies." Article 231 The War Guilt Clause GERMANY ACCEPTED RESPONSIBILITY FOR STARTING THE WAR!!!!! This meant that:
REPARATIONS Germany agreed to pay for the damage caused by her armies during the war. The sum they had to pay: $31.4 BILLION!!!! Germany was forbidden to unite with Austria Germany Austria
The Treaty of Versailles was signed on 28th June It officially ended the 1st World War. Many historians believe that it was a major cause of the 2nd World War.