Presentation on theme: "Warm-Up Why what two events prompted the U.S. to join World War I?"— Presentation transcript:
Warm-Up Why what two events prompted the U.S. to join World War I?
All Quiet on the Western Front Read the excerpts that follow and listen carefully as we see videos of the effects of trench warfare.
Life in the Trenches http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oeJkps OqQgc http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oeJkps OqQgc http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=diJ13qn ULRQ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=diJ13qn ULRQ
Excerpt #1 A shell crashes. Almost immediately two others. And then it begins in earnest. A Bombardment. Machine-guns rattle. Now there is nothing for it but to stay lying low. Apparently an attack is coming. Everywhere the rockets shoot up. Unceasing... I lie motionless; somewhere something clanks, it stamps and stumbles nearer - all my nerves become taut and icy. It clatters over me and away, the first wave has passed. I have but this one shattering thought: What will you do if someone jumps in your shell-hole? Swiftly I pull out my little dagger, grasp it fast, and bury it in my hand once again under the mud. If anyone jumps in here I will go for him. It hammers in my forehead; at once, stab him clean through the throat, so that he cannot call out; that’s the only way; he will be just as frightened as I am; when in terror we fall upon one another, then I must be first.
Into No Man’s Land http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4kULvx73 bZ4 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4kULvx73 bZ4
Excerpt #2 We must look out for our bread. The rats have become much more numerous lately because the trenches are no longer in good condition. The rats here are particularly repulsive, they are so fat... [with] long, nude tails. They seem mighty hungry. Almost every man has had his bread gnawed. Kropp wrapped his in his waterproof sheet and put it under his head, but he cannot sleep because they run over his face to get at it. Detering meant to outwit them: he fastened a thin wire to the roof and suspended his bread from it. During the night when he switched on his pocket-torch he saw the wire swinging to and fro. On the bread was riding a fat rat.
Excerpt #3 How long has it been? Weeks-months- years? Only days. We see time pass in the colourless faces of the dying, we cram food into us, we run, we throw we shoot, we kill, we lie about, we are feeble and spent, and nothing supports us but the knowledge that there are still feebler, still more spent, still more helpless ones there who, with stating eyes, look upon us as gods that escape death many times. (133)
Gas Attack 2 mins http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=- lSLWnfCP6M http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=- lSLWnfCP6M
Remember these… Waterlogged Trenches Dysentery Trench Rats Shell Shock Trench Foot Lice Dead Bodies InfectionUnsanitary Gas attacks Artillery Attacks
Letter Home Imagine that you have been in the trenches for a few weeks and write a letter home about what you’ve experienced. You need THREE paragraphs describing your experience. You need THREE paragraphs describing your experience. 1 st Paragraph: Which side are you on? Who are you fighting? How long have you been in the trench? 2 nd Paragraph: Describe the conditions of the trenches, diseases or attacks you’ve survived. 3 rd Paragraph: Talk about your hopes for after the war is over and what it will be like outside of the trenches.
Letter Home Imagine that you have been in the trenches for a few weeks and write a letter home about what you’ve experienced. You need TWO paragraphs describing your experience. You need TWO paragraphs describing your experience. 1 st Paragraph: Which side are you on? Who are you fighting? How long have you been in the trench? 2 nd Paragraph: Describe the conditions of the trenches, diseases or attacks you’ve survived. Talk about your hopes for after the war is over and what it will be like outside of the trenches.
Germany had to accept total responsibility for starting the First World War. This was called the War Guilt Clause or Article 231.
Germany had to pay $32 billion in reparations to cover war damages and other Allied losses. These were called reparations.
Germany had to hand over some 70,000 square kilometres of land. Including land to give back to France and more land for a new Polish state.
Germany was to have her colonies taken away from her. These colonies were to become mandates run by the Allies on behalf of the League of Nations.
The German army was to have no more than 100,000 men and the navy was limited to 15,000 sailors. There was to be no airforce and no submarines.
The German navy was only allowed six battleships and Germany was forbidden to buy any more weapons and other war material.
An Allied Army was to occupy the Rhineland for a period of fifteen years. No German troops were to be allowed into the occupation zone.
It created the League of Nations. This would help promote peace and trade throughout the world.
Germans hated the treaty, especially Article 231 which blamed them for starting the war. Many Germans also thought the financial penalties that the treaty imposed upon their country and her people to be immoral and unjust. The German Government that had agreed to the treaty became known as the "November Criminals“. Many German citizens felt that they were now being punished for the mistakes of the Kaiser and German government of August 1914 who had started the war as well as the government of 1919 that had signed the treaty that brought peace.