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Felix Schaber. Outline  The beginning of Trench Warfare  Weapons of Trench Warfare  Life in the Trenches  Strategies to break through the enemy lines.

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Presentation on theme: "Felix Schaber. Outline  The beginning of Trench Warfare  Weapons of Trench Warfare  Life in the Trenches  Strategies to break through the enemy lines."— Presentation transcript:

1 Felix Schaber

2 Outline  The beginning of Trench Warfare  Weapons of Trench Warfare  Life in the Trenches  Strategies to break through the enemy lines and defend their own  Facts and figures

3 The beginning of Trench Warfare  3rd August, 1914, German troops crossed the Belgian border in the narrow gap between Holland and France.  Germans are quickly victorious over the Belgians  The French an British are defeated at Sambre (22nd August) and Mons (23rd August).  The German army marches for Paris but is unable to break through due to a French counterattack (Battle of the Marne 4th to 10th September)  The German commander, General Erich von Falkenhayn, decided that his troops must hold onto those parts of France and Belgium that Germany still occupied.  Falkenhayn ordered his men to dig trenches that would provide them with protection from the advancing French and British troops.  The Allies soon realized that they could not break through this line and they also began to dig trenches.  After a few months these trenches had spread from the North Sea to the Swiss Frontier.  For the next three years neither side advanced more than a few miles along this line that became known as the Western Front.

4 Weapons of Trench Warfare

5 Infantry  At the beginning improvised weapons  Rifle  Bayonet  Shotgun  Hand grenades  Flamethrowers

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7 Machine guns  British: Vickers machine guns Later changed to Lewis Gun  German: Maschinengewehr 08  Mostly used to defend  Heavy machine guns

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9 Tanks  British innovation  First use: Battle of Somme  At first they were very ineffective  Later became essential

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11 Artillery  Essential for any attack  Shaped the landscape at the Western Front  Fragmentation, highly explosive and gas shells  German 420 mm howitzer: Weight: 20 tons Could fire a one-ton shell over 10 km

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13 Gas  Mustard gas  Chlorine  Phosgene 85% of the 100,000 deaths caused by chemical weapons during World War I  Gas masks: Urinating over a handkerchief Later developed  Not very effective due to countermeasures

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15 Life in the Trenches

16 Water in the Trenches  Germans had the higher and therefore better positions  Water would be found 2-3 feet below surface  Rain would collect in the trenches  Caused trench foot

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18 Trench Foot  Infection of the feet  Caused by: Cold Wet Unsanitary conditions  Sometimes feet had to be amputated

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20 Food  Caned food  Nothing fresh  Rats ate some  Rations got lower and lower over the course of the war

21 Self Inflicted Wounds  Hoped to be released home  Mostly shot themselves in the arm or foot  Could be sentenced with execution

22 Strategies to break through the enemy lines and defend their own

23 Barb Wire  In front of the trenches in the No-Mans- Land  Worsened with the artillery fire  Redone at night

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25 Cavalry  High place value at the beginning  Equipped with: Sword Rifle Lance  Massacred by machine gun fire

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27 Miners  Specialist Miners-Not soldiers!  Objective: Blow up the trenches from below Then start a quick attack  Other side tried to hear them  Could take a year to dig

28 Facts and Figures

29 BattleYearAlliesGerman 1st Marne263,000220,000 1st Ypres , ,921134,315 Verdun , ,000355, ,000 Somme ,907465, ,294 2nd Aisne ,00040,000 3rd Ypres , ,000260, ,000 Spring Offensive ,374688,341 Hundred Days Offensive19181,069,636785,733 Total Casualties from Major Western Front Battles ,619, ,077,8382,948, ,297, Over 450,000 civilian deaths

30 Bibliography  Information:  Pictures: images/2008/04/22/51/00ec e9cc9c295488a2e97d_image_document_large_featured _borderless.jpg images/2008/04/22/51/00ec e9cc9c295488a2e97d_image_document_large_featured _borderless.jpg


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