Presentation on theme: "WORLD WAR ONE THE TRENCH WARFARE AND ITS CONSEQUENCES CONTEXT AND STRATEGIES TACTICS AND IDEOLOGIES TRAUMAS."— Presentation transcript:
WORLD WAR ONE THE TRENCH WARFARE AND ITS CONSEQUENCES CONTEXT AND STRATEGIES TACTICS AND IDEOLOGIES TRAUMAS
I. MOVEMENTS OF TROOPS AND BATTLEFRONTS : Three fronts : Western, Russian (or Eastern), Balkanic and Turkish. Strategic spots : the straits, the seas (the routes to the colonies, trade with the US…), the Channel ports (Dunkirk). Psychological targets : Paris, London, Moscow and civilians everywhere.
Three main phases on the Western Front : -Plans and races to the sea failed: 1914 ; end of the war of movement - Trench warfare : ; soldiers and armies dug themselves - Troops moved again :
The example of the first phase of the war : The German Schlieffen Plan The French Plan 17 September 1914 : Battle of the Marne.
The formation of the first trench frontline: October-November To avoid being skirted round / bypassed (contourné) / & cut from reinforcements. Both armies moved northwards and met in a bloody battle at Ypres. After a month the fight ended. 20,000 of Germany’s finest troops were killed, 80,000 wounded. GB lost 8,000 men (BEF : British Expeditionary Force).
THERE WAS NO BREAKTHROUGH, THERE WAS STALEMATE. Stalemate : impasse. Major battles :
Major battles on the Western Front: Ypres, Oct-Nov Verdun, Feb-June 1916 The Somme, summer to autumn 1916.
II. WHAT THE COMBATS AND THE TACTICS REVEALED ABOUT STATES AND THE MILITARY MIND-SET
French side German side Never surrender Never retreat Never wait and see No permanent retreat Occupy the land, consolidate the front, adapt technologies Liberate Germany from blockade British side Never lose the control of seas Adapt technologies
The trench system :
TRENCHTRENCH Permanent victories and withdrawals: the inefficiency of the trench tactics… Artillery Infantry TRENCHTRENCH Artillery Infantry
Cheshire Regiment trench, Somme, 1916.
A French WWI bunker soldier.
What was this war effort made for?
To experience new economic models? State - controlled economies. « Technology experienced a great boost after the war, as the production of automobiles, airplanes, radios and even certain chemicals, skyrocketed. The advantages of mass production and the use of machinery to perform former human labor tasks, along with the implementation of the eight hour work day, proved to stimulate the economy ».
To imply civilians at any cost? Verdun, the Somme, Ypres… = the war of attrition (usure). It consisted in obliging the enemy to exhaust its human supplies by defending a place it did not want to lose. The goal was not to take the place but to bleed French army white (“saigner à blanc l’armée française” = to bleed the French dry) and to weaken the morale of troops; if France was crushed down, it would isolate Britain and force this country to seek peace.
To summon the populations in a collective destiny? Censorship Propaganda Enrolment War loans
Document analyzis US Army recruitment poster Harry R. Hopps, 1917 Present (context, author, intentions) Observe then describe the composition; interpret on the meaning
Document analyzis US Army recruitment poster Harry R. Hopps, 1917 Present (context, author, intentions) Enlistment poster, to recruit new soldiers / fresh meat 1917: year of US military involvement (arrive in France in April) Tense year of the tide for the Entente members: loss of hundreds of thousands of men in the Dardanelles, larger discontent among the troops, first severe soldier disregards at the front US army: needs to mobilize, to make US public opinion aware with the necessity of war and to warn it about the enemy’s intentions To what extent does it talk about state war efforts? Is it about peace or propaganda?
Document analyzis US Army recruitment poster Harry R. Hopps, 1917 Observe – Describe - Interpret Foreground giant letters giving orders giant terrifying ape + bloody bludgeon + ironic writing of « Kultur » + German spiked helmet with the caption « militarism » abducted innocent woman; clothes are taken off, ripped / torn, sliced and diced = like a rape onto a maiden Dark colours predominate Background Dark atmosphere (the sunset swallows the light) + feeling of desolation inspired by the havoc wrecked in European cities (all in ruins) Tends to maximize the evil side of the German ambitions Caricatures the desolation that may touch the US land (« America ») Warns people and affects them in an emotional way to convince to go fighting
War veterans with severe facial injuries Maimed people Disabled veterans Men with broken faces and lives Many soldiers suffered from shell shock. The intensity of the battles neurotic cracks appeared in mentally stable soldiers.
Incendiary shells on Verdun
Warfare was terrible : artillery shells, poison gas (which was used for the first time by Germans in April 1915), flame thrower, hand-to-hand fight. Brutality was within the minds and retaliatory feelings still persisted after 1918… Casualties From Gas - The Numbers Country Total CasualtiesDeath Austria-Hungary100,0003,000 British Empire188,7068,109 France190,0008,000 Germany200,0009,000 Italy60,0004,627 Russia419,34056,000 USA72,8071,462 Others10,0001,000
The living conditions on the front line were really dreadful (épouvantable), appalling (effroyable): soldiers floundered (patauger) in mud and when it rained, they could be up to their knees in water. There was a lack of hygiene. In such unhygienic conditions, diseases were common. The epidemics : germs in food and water led to typhus, cholera, dysentry. Everyone had lice. Rats ran everywhere. The smell from corpses and sewage was terrible. Amputations were frequent. The food was cold and often polluted with dust, mud or something worse sometimes. Rotting bodies, corpses, horse carcasses... direct contact with death.
Cannon fodder Death could happen at any time and took many forms Soldiers were not anxious only, they were traumatized Here, a vision of the No-Man’s Land... What do you feel in front of it?
IV. IMPACTS OF THE WAR ON THE INTERWAR PERIOD Increased frustrations, lost generations. Anger and agressivity to avenge. The addiction to violence disturbed people and paved the way for fascist regimes FRANCEFRANCE GERMANYGERMANY The war to end all wars… The undefeated army
A German machine gun squadPatriotism: a culture… Beyond pride and comic, what was the result? Brainwashed people, indoctrination of the youth… Belief in fatality.
Otto Dix Dismembered veterans and people Half-mechanic, half human Half-living, half-dead
The heavy-metal band Metallica released a song (« ONE ») in tribute to WW1 soldiers and a reference to 1971 Dalton Trumbo’s film « Johnny got his gun »