Ecological imbalance Problems of the new millennium Shortage of fresh water
OBJECT "Water sustains life. It is now our duty to sustain all sources of water. Let us make water conservation a National Mission.” “Let us collectively address the problem of water shortage, which is growing into crisis proportions.” “Conserve every drop of water”
INTRODUCTION Conservation of Rain water is known as “Rain water Harvesting” through which monsoon run off can be utilized for domestic use which other wise goes waste. In rural area of Rajasthan (Thar Desert) no reliable water supply net work exists. People are using water of ponds, which is also used by the animals/ cattle's. Rain water is traditionally used in rural area of Rajasthan for drinking purpose.
WHAT IS RAIN WATER HARVESTING Conservation of roof top rain water in urban housing complexes and institutional buildings having larger area and utilizing the same to augment ground water storage, existing wells, tube wells etc is known as rain water harvesting
WHY IT IS REQUIRED ? 1.To meet over the increasing demand for water in urban area. 2. To reduce the run off which is increasing the load on storm drains. 3. To avoid the damage to roads by preventing erosion. 4. To augment the ground water storage and to control decline of water level. 5. To improve the quality of ground water. 6. To reduce the soil erosion.
VARIOUS METHODS OF RAINWATER HARVESTING S NoMethods of Rainwater Harvesting 1Through Recharge Pit 2Through abundant hand pump 3Through dug well/open well 4Through Recharge of trench 5Recharge through shaft 6Through check dam in rivers
Rainwater harvesting through wells Rainwater harvesting through percolation trenches
THROUGH WELLS Recharge water is guided to the bottom of well or below the water level to avoid scouring of bottom. Bottom of well should be cleaned and all fine deposits should be removed before its use for recharge. Recharge water should be silt free. The well should be cleaned regularly. Periodical disinfect ion is required in order to control bacteriological contamination.
THROUGH RECHARGE OF TRENCH oRecharge trench is constructed when permeable strata of adequate thickness is available at shallow depth. o The trench may be 0.5 to 1.0 m wide,1.o m to 1.5 m deep and 10 to 20 m long depending upon the availability of land and roof top area. o Trench is filled with boulders at the bottom followed by pebbles and sand at top. oThe trench should be cleaned periodically.
Recharge water through soak pits Recharge ground water by pebble beds
THROUGH RECHARGE PIT In this 1 to 2 m wide and 2 to 3 m deep recharge pit is constructed to recharge the shallow aquifer. After excavation, the pit is refilled with boulders and pebbles at bottom followed by gravel and then sand at the top. The collected water from the roof top is diverted to the pit through a drain pipe. Recharge water is filtered through the pit. Sand layer in pit should be removed and replaced every year after rainy season.
ADVANTAGE 1.This is an ideal solution of water problem where there is inadequate ground water supply or surface resources are either lacking or insignificant. 2. It will help in reducing the flood hazards. 3. To improve the quality of existing ground water through dilution. since rain water is bacteriologically safe and free from organic matters and is soft in nature.
DETAILS OF PROJECT 1. NWR Divisional Plan No.JU/2002/551 2. Total roof area of DRM office = 2400 sqm 3. Area included in 1 st Phase = 1600 sqm 4. Average annual rainfall = 350 mm 5. Total rainwater available from roof top of DRM office = 480 cum 6. Estimated cost of project. = Rs 2,23,500/- 7. Completion of project. = May 2003
SYSTEM DEVELOPED 1. Rainwater brought down through 100 mm dia A.C.pipes. 2. Rainwater goes to main pipe line through manholes. 3. Main pipeline consists of 150 mm dia SW pipe increasing to 300 mm dia NP-2 pipes. 4. Rainwater is collected into two collecting chambers, provided very near to deep tubewell.
5. Deep tubewell get recharged under gravity flow condition. 6. Two sedimentation tank provided near the deep tubewell to collect silt and other suspended particles. 7. A pipe length of 928 meters of different dia (100 mm to 300 mm) used to carry the rainwater from rooftop to deep tubewell. SYSTEM DEVELOPED
ACHIEVEMENTS Total area of rooftop covered under this scheme. 1600 sqm Total rainfall in the current season upto 31.8.2005. 336 mm Total rainfall volume = 1600 sqm x 0.336 m 537.60 cum Total volume of rain water available for recharge (assuming 20% wastage) 430 cum Say 4,30,000 litres Rise in the static water level of tubewell. 17.78 cm
The details of rainfall is as under :- SN.DATERAINFALL (IN MM) CUMALATIVE RAINFALL (IN MM) 1 1.7.05 to 31.8.05 336
RAIN WATER HARVESTING SYSTEM DEVELOPED AT DRM OFFICE, JODHPUR
Conclusion “Make water conservation our mission” Include Water conservation in Indian Railway Corporate Plan As we cannot produce energy but we can save it by preventing wastage. In the same way we can not produce water but we can prevent it from wastage and protect our future.