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World War I “What did people know of war in 1914, after nearly half a century of peace? They did not know war; they had hardly given it a thought. They.

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Presentation on theme: "World War I “What did people know of war in 1914, after nearly half a century of peace? They did not know war; they had hardly given it a thought. They."— Presentation transcript:

1 World War I “What did people know of war in 1914, after nearly half a century of peace? They did not know war; they had hardly given it a thought. They still saw it in the perspective of their school readers and of paintings in museums; brilliant cavalry attacks in glittering uniforms, the fatal shot always straight through the heart, the entire campaign a resounding march of victory—’We’ll be home at Christmas,’ the recruits shouted laughingly to their mothers in August of 1914….The young people were honestly afraid that they might miss this most wonderful and exciting experience of their lives;…that is why they shouted and sang in the trains that carried them to the slaughter.” --from The World of Yesterday, Helmut Ripperger and B.W. Buebsch, 1943

2 Europeans went to war with tremendous enthusiasm in 1914
World War I Europeans went to war with tremendous enthusiasm in 1914 European leaders before 1914 thought that war could be avoided through diplomatic means They also thought countries would not want to take political and economic risks of war Propaganda: ideas spread to influence public opinion for or against a cause -may or may not be accurate European governments in 1914 had spread enough propaganda to convince most people that their nation’s cause was justified

3 World War I Most people also felt that this war would only last a few weeks -most European wars since 1815 had only lasted a few weeks -citizens and soldiers went into war thinking their country would quickly march to victory

4 World War I The German Schlieffen Plan relied on speed
-Germans were going to arc through Belgium and surround Paris, along with most of the French army The French used over two thousand taxicabs to move troops out of Paris to intercept the Germans

5 September 6—10, 1914: the first Battle of the Marne
The Germans and the French each dug a series of trenches for shelter These trenches were ditches protected by barbed wire This battle quickly turned into a stalemate as neither army could dislodge the other army from its trenches

6 World War I Soon, two lines of trenches existed stretching from the English Channel to the Swiss frontier The Germans and French would spend nearly four years in nearly the same positions

7 World War I

8 World War I

9 Trench Warfare Clip

10 World War I The Eastern Front:
Russians entered eastern Germany at beginning of war Russians were soundly defeated at Battle of Tannenberg and Battle of Masurian Lakes Russians were no longer a threat to German territory Germans captured over 100,000 Russians at Tannenberg

11 World War I Austria-Hungary—had poor initial luck
-Serbs forced them out -Russians defeated them at Battle of Galicia -Italy abandoned their alliance and attacked Austria-Hungary Allies: Great Britain, France, Russia, Italy Triple Alliance: Germany, Austria-Hungary (Ottoman Empire)

12 World War I The Germans came to the aid of the Austrians, and defeated the Russians at Galicia Russians driven far back into their own territory By May 1915, Russian casualties stood at 2.5 million killed, wounded, or captured -they were almost knocked out of the war Bulgaria joined Germany and Austria-Hungary They took over Serbia by September 1915 This success in the east allowed the Germans to take the offensive in the west

13 The trenches dug in 1914 became elaborate systems of defense by 1916
-protected by barbed wire -concrete machine-gun nests -heavy artillery protection further back No-man’s land: the area between the opposing trenches

14 World War I Military leaders had been trained and used to fighting battles using movement and maneuver The trenches baffled them They thought the only way to win the war was to break through the trench lines Heavy artillery was used to “soften” the enemy Then, men would rush out of their trenches towards the enemy trench While they were in “no-man’s land” they were easy targets for the rifles and machine-gunners This tactic was used for over two years on the western front

15 World War I Millions of men died in 1916 and 1917 using these tactics
In only 10 months near Verdun, France, over 700,000 soldiers died in just a few miles of land

16 World War I War of attrition—a war based on wearing the other side down by constant attacks and heavy losses -can also expect heavy losses from both sides

17 World War I Airplanes were used in warfare for the first time in history by the end of 1915 -were first used to spot enemy positions -soon were used to attack enemy positions, especially communications

18 World War I At first, pilots fired at each other with handheld pistols
-later, machine guns were mounted on the planes

19 Zeppelins: large German airships
Used to float over and bomb cities like London Did little damage, but scared many people Zeppelins were filled with hydrogen, and soon the allies found that anti-aircraft guns could ignite the gas and destroy the zeppelin

20 The British were unsuccessful at Gallipoli
World War I Both sides tried to gain new allies Bulgaria and the Ottoman Empire joined Germany and Austria-Hungary (became known as Central Powers) British tried to open a new front on the Balkan Peninsula Gallipoli Peninsula The British were unsuccessful at Gallipoli

21 World War I Italy was promised Austrian territory for joining the Allies -they opened up a front against the Austrians Lawrence of Arabia: British officer stationed in the Middle East -he persuaded Arabs to revolt against the Ottomans -the British also brought in troops from their worldwide empire (India, Australia, New Zealand) The British were able to dismantle the Ottoman Empire

22 World War I Germans were so preoccupied in Europe and they lacked significant naval strength -the British were able to seize a large number of German colonies in Africa as well as many Pacific islands

23 World War I The British set up a naval blockade of Germany to prevent materials from reaching German ports The Germans also set up a blockade of Britain The Germans used unrestricted submarine warfare -they sunk any ship trying to enter or leave Britain, including passenger liners May 7, 1915: the British passenger liner Lusitania was sunk by German submarines -over 1100 civilian deaths, including over 100 Americans

24 World War I The U.S. protested, and the Germans suspended their use of unrestricted submarine warfare -Germans didn’t want to antagonize the U.S.

25 World War I By January 1917, the Germans were eager to break the stalemate of the war -they convinced Emperor William II to resume unrestricted submarine warfare -felt they could starve out Britain in six months -the emperors advisors convinced him the United States wouldn’t be a threat These advisors were wrong -the British were not starved out -the U.S. entered the war in April 1917 This gave the Allies a huge psychological boost

26 World War I Total war: a complete mobilization of resources and people
-all citizens were involved in the war, no matter how far removed they were from the actual battlefields -an entire country was needed to organize the supplies needed for war This led to increased government powers and a manipulation of public opinion to keep the war effort going The Home Front was often as important as the War Front

27 World War I Increased government powers included: Mandatory drafts
Government control of economies -set price, wage, and rent controls -rationed food supplies and markets -regulated imports and exports Took over transportation systems and industries Planned economies: systems directed by government agencies -disappearance of free market system

28 World War I As the war dragged on, the patriotic enthusiasm that marked the early stages of the war had disappeared Governments had to deal with growing opposition to war Authoritarian governments (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Russia) used force to subdue their populations Democratic nations were forced to expand their powers Civil liberties were restricted *the British Parliament passed the Defence of the Realm Act which allowed police to arrest protestors as traitors *newspapers were censored, some even suspended

29 Very popular WWI propaganda posters
World War I Governments used propaganda to enthuse their citizens -the British and French exaggerated German atrocities in Belgium Very popular WWI propaganda posters

30 World War I

31 World War I

32 World War I Total war changed the role of women
-because so many men left, women were asked to take over jobs that were not available to them before -many involved in heavy industry and making war materials

33 World War I It was recognized that women would be replaced once men returned, as evident by the following poem from 1916: War Girls There’s the girl who clips your ticket for the train, And the girl who speeds the lift from floor to floor, There’s the girl who does the milk-round in the rain, And the girl who calls for orders at your dor. Strong, sensible, and fit, They’re out to show their grit, And tackle jobs with energy and knack. No longer caged and penned up Theiy’re going to keep their end up Till the khaki soldier boys come marching back.

34 World War I At the end of the war, governments quickly removed women from the jobs they encouraged them to take Work benefits for women were short-lived By 1919, there were 650,000 unemployed women in Britain Women’s wages were lowered after the war But, the role of women had a positive effect in some areas: In Germany, Austria, and the U.S., women gained the right to vote immediately after the war -in 1918 in Britain

35 World War I Many upper- and middle-class women began to: Take new jobs
Live on their own Show their new independence

36 World War I

37 What Do You Know, Now? Ideas spread to influence public opinion
Trench warfare Propaganda Zepplin Total war War of attrition

38 What Do You Know, Now? Warfare based on wearing down opponents
Trench warfare Propaganda Zepplin Total war War of attrition

39 What Do You Know, Now? Huge German airship Trench warfare Propaganda
Zepplin Total war War of attrition

40 What Do You Know, Now? Warfare based on protected lines of ditches
Trench warfare Propaganda Zepplin Total war War of attrition

41 What Do You Know, Now? Complete mobilization of resources and people
Trench warfare Propaganda Zepplin Total war War of attrition

42 What Do You Know, Now? During the war, new roles in the workforce were created for women because They were experienced workers So many men entered the military draft Women needed something to do Women demanded equality So many more women decided to leave the home in search of work

43 What Do You Know, Now? To maintain high morale and maintain support for the war among their citizens Only the authoritarian regimes used propaganda Only the authoritarian regimes allowed peace rallies The democratic states used propaganda The democratic states did not resort to using propaganda Authoritarian and democratic states allowed peace rallies

44 What Do You Know, Now? Air warfare in World War I involved all of the following except The first long-range missiles Spotting enemy positions Attacking ground targets Shooting down enemy aircraft “Dogfights” which involved air-to-air combat between planes

45 What Do You Know, Now? Across Europe, wartime governments
A. Maintained free-market conditions Set up planned economies Reduced their powers Deregulated prices, wages, and rent Saw increases in individual civil liberties

46 What Do You Know, Now? The United States entered the war largely over the issue of Serbian independence Trench warfare German use of zeppelins Unrestricted submarine warfare Atrocities committed in Belgium

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