Presentation on theme: "Ocean Floor Chapter 23. How much of the earth is covered by water?"— Presentation transcript:
Ocean Floor Chapter 23
How much of the earth is covered by water?
Name the five oceans on earth? The ____________ Ocean The ___________ Ocean The ____________ Ocean
Earths’ oceans PAAIS
What’s under all that water???
If you could drain all the water…
The earths crust of course! Composed of the igneous rock basalt
Oceanic Crust is made of one type of rock: igneous basalt 7 km (5 miles ) thin Composed of dark, igneous rock –Basalt (black, ocean basin) –3.0 g/ml density –180 million years young (or less)
What does the ocean crust look like ? touring the ocean floor
23.1 Video clip Mapping the Ocean Floor (mapping California coast) (coral reef) Geode CD-ROM and note sheet ES0802 “How Old is the Atlantic Ocean?” How do they know what’s under all that water???
Oceanic Crust is the same as the continental crust: it has mountains, canyons, hills, valleys ridges, plains …
23.2 Passive and Active Continental Margins
Profile of a PASSIVE continental margin: they are Not located at a plate boundary
The shallow, continental shelf can extend for many miles
Passive = peaceful, beaches
U.S. East coast has a very wide PASSIVE continental shelf On your map, find and shade passive continental margins turquois blue.
Gulf of Mexico has passive margins consisting of MILES of continental shelf and shallow seas
Continental shelf East coast of S. America Australia
Where does the continent stop and the ocean floor begin?? The continental shelf and continental slope are attached to the continent, Where as the sediments of the continental rise sits on the ocean floor.
Often there is a steep, deep drop off at the edge of the continental shelf to the ocean floor.
Abyssal plains Are extremely level. They are the flattest places on earth! cover about one-half of the deep-ocean floor. The flatness of these plains is the result of the accumulation of a blanket of sediments, up to 5 kilometers thick! ( which overlies the basaltic rocks of the oceanic crust.)
Abyssal plains are large flat basin with little of no slope. The rugged ocean floor is filled-in and smoothed by layers and layers of sediment.
Just as a heavy snowfall covers all the features of the street, Sediment covers all the rugged features on the ocean floor smoothing it flat
Thousands of seamounts dot the ocean floor. Sea mounts = under the sea volcanic mountains Smaller hills punctuate the abyssal plains are most common in the Atlantic Ocean
The Hawaiian Island arc are part of a long chain of seamounts that stick out above the water in the Pacific Ocean
Ocean ridges rise above the ocean floor and contains many faults and fractures.
At mid-ocean ridges volcanic vents spew smoke and hot gases, and heat the surrounding water where a few types of marine life can survive and flourish. Hydro-thermal vents https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XotF9fzo4Vo
Where are the sandy beaches and shallow water? Instead, steep, rocky slopes
Mountains and volcanoes are found along ACTIVE continental margins where the dense ocean crust is forced under the continental crust. At CONVERGENT boundaries
The U.S. Pacific coast is an ACTIVE continental margin that has steep rocky mountains with little beaches.
The Andes Mountains in South America are the worlds longest mountain range. It is an active continental margin. The Peru-Chili TRENCH runs along the western edge of the continent
Active continental margins have steep slopes and deep trenches Steep continental slope Deep trench Coastal mountains What feature is missing???? Abyssal plain
Deep trenches are located around the Pacific ocean – Color those Dark Blue
It's the deepest spot in the world! "Grand Canyon of the Pacific” It’s 1,580 miles long and 43 miles wide. It is 11,033 meters, 36,201 feet or 6.86 miles deep (below sea level) The pressure at the deepest part of the Mariana Trench is over 8 tons per square inch. (compared to 14 pounds/sq. in. on the surface). If Mount Everest, the highest mountain on Earth, were placed in the trench it would be covered by over one mile of water! The Mariana Trench
How deep is it? Mariana Trench Is the deepest Place on the Earth! Mt. Everest could fit in the Mariana Trench and still not stick out above the water! 29,000 ft 36,200 ft (6.8 miles!) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v5DG5Eup9ss
Match that ocean feature! 1.Under sea volcanoes. 2.Flattest part of the ocean. 3.Deepest places in the ocean. 4.Shallow water at edge of a continent. 5.Margin where earthquakes and volcanoes occur. 6.Where the magma pushes up. 7.43,000 miles long! 8.Where the continent ends. a.Active margin b.Passive margin c.Ridge d.Rift valley e.Trench f.Seamount g.Abyssal plain h.Continental rise i.Continental shelf j.Continental slope
The west coast of the U.S. has steep, sloping canyons
Monterey, California A submarine canyon Page
Erosion of soil/sediment due to water forms canyons
A steep canyon cuts into the narrow continental shelf and extend out onto the ocean basin.
Monterey Bay, California Monterey Canyon at over two miles is twice as deep as Arizona’s Grand Canyon.
Name that feature! __ __ E C D H A F B G
Bell work 1. Where is new ocean floor being created? 2. Where is ocean floor being destroyed (recycled)? 3. Where is new land being added to continents? a. Abyssal plain b. Trenches c. Continental slope d. Mid-ocean ridges d. ridges b. trenches c. Continental slope
Video Quiz on ocean features
Bell work What percent of salt does the ocean contain? ___________% salt What body of water is the saltiest? What percent? ___________%