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World War I.

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Presentation on theme: "World War I."— Presentation transcript:

1 World War I


3 Imperialistic rivalries- fight over colonies System of alliances
Economic rivalries Imperialistic rivalries- fight over colonies System of alliances Triple Alliance- Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy Triple Entente- France, Russia, Great Britain Arms race Britain- the Dreadnought Germany- naval buildup France- military spending


5 Franco-Prussian War (18701)- loss of Alsace and Lorraine and revanche
Germany’s fear of encirclement Mobilization Reliance on reserves Fear Cost

6 Germany’s fear of encirclement and a two-front war

7 Inflexibility in war plans- Schlieffen Plan
Political weakness of Austro-Hungarian Empire Balkan Wars of 1912 and 1913 Rise of Pan-Slavism supported by Russia Brinkmanship diplomacy

8 Schlieffen Plan Fix French army on border Attack France through neutral Belgium Defeat France before Russian mobilization Confront Russia

9 Archduke Ferdinand and Family
The Black Hand Pan-Slavism Archduke Ferdinand- heir to the throne Serbian Secret Police support Archduke Ferdinand and Family

10 The Archduke Ferdinand and wife visit Sarajevo

11 The Assassin Gavrilo Princip Princip apprehended after the attack

12 Austria- demands justice from Serbia
Serbia rejects demands Austria mobilizes for war Russia mobilizes for war Germany and France mobilize for war Germany initiates Schlieffen Plan Britain chooses to join France based on “neutral” Belgium claim


14 Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand
Long Range Causes Nationalism Militarism Alliances Imperial Competition Schlieffen Plan Immediate Causes Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand Mobilization World War I

15 Kaiser Wilhelm II King George V Tsar Nicholas II

16 Lloyd George Georges Clemenceau Woodrow Wilson

17 Germans advance though Belgium
France attacks Germany Stagnation and Trench warfare Massive casualties

18 Typical trench system layout

19 Obstacles in attacking a trench system

20 Sappers dig mines and countermines

21 Trench systems seen from the air
Trench systems ran from Switzerland to the North Sea

22 Wet conditions inside the trenches produced “trench foot”

23 Severe Russian defeats Russian Revolution Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
Withdrawal of Russia from war Lenin – Russian leader

24 Australian troops at Gallipoli
Entrance of Ottoman Empire Allied attacks on Middle East Gallipoli Asia Africa Australian troops at Gallipoli

25 Churchill’s idea to break the deadlock on the Western Front


27 United States entered war in 1917 Allies on verge of collapse
WWI began 1914 United States entered war in 1917 Allies on verge of collapse Entrance of US signals beginning of end for Central Powers Unrestricted submarine warfare Zimmerman telegram Financial stake in Allied success



30 British naval blockade
Hunger / revolts in Central Powers Armistice to be based on Wilson’s Fourteen Points

31 Key Aspects of Wilson’s Fourteen Points
Freedom of the Seas Self Determination Free Trade Key Aspects of Wilson’s Fourteen Points League of Nations Arms Reduction Restoration of Belgium Independent Poland and Czechoslovakia

32 Versailles Treaty Harsh and humiliating Reparations
Foundation for rise of Nazis and WWII

33 Destruction of the Austro-Hungarian Empire
Destruction of the German Empire Destruction of the Ottoman Empire Destruction of the Russian Empire and the creation of Communist Soviet Union (USSR) Weakening of the surviving Western empires Creation of new states: Yugoslavia, Poland, Czechoslovakia Territorial gains by Italy, France, Britain

34 The Treaty of Versailles
Return of Colonies and Territory German War Guilt Reparations The Treaty of Versailles German Disarmament Occupation of the Rhineland Establishment of Mandates League of Nations

35 Decline in power of League of Nations
US Senate rejects Treaty of Versailles Germans bitter over terms of Treaty Rise of Adolf Hitler Asian and African colonies angry at broken promises Rise of Independence Movements

36 Americas Europe Africa Asia Middle East
United States congress does not agrees to join League of nations Depression hits Latin American cash crops fall in price Spread of socialist and communist ideas Fear of future wars Mexican revolution part II for peasant land redistribution Roosevelt corollary continues Versailles treaty leaves out Central powers. France and Great Britain wishes to punish Germany. Europe suffers from Great depression because of War costs. Russia signs omitted because of Communist Revolution 1917. Ottoman and Austria-Hungary divided into new territories (self-determination) “lost generation” leads to fear of future wars Rise of totalitarian dictators (Hitler, Stalin, Mussolini, Franco) Many promised independence if they fought for their colonizers (did not get it) . Taught them how to kill “white people” Inspired nationalist sentiment which would eventually lead to decolonization after WWII Many given mandate or protectorate status after war Many were at the Versailles conference but received nothing Colonization will continue India and Viet Nam would gain nationalist ambitions but would not see independence until after the second war. Japan recognized as a player which would eventually cede territories in the South Pacific which once belonged to Germany. Inspires imperialist ambitions. China disregarded and created civil chaos and May fourth movement (unintended) to inspire students to fight for more rights (like the 1989 Tiananmen square protests) Saudi Arabia the only independent nation from the Ottoman Empire which gains popular sovereignty Most become British or French Mandates (technically still under their control) because of oils in region Balfour Declaration (British promise of an independent Jewish homeland) fuels Zionism (not realized until 1948) Sykes-Picot agreement (secret agreement between France and Great Britain to create an independent Palestine) unfulfilled but continued Pan-Arab nationalism

37 Propaganda






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