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The Great War 1914-1918 The War Begins The Impact of Technology The Western and Eastern Front.

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Presentation on theme: "The Great War 1914-1918 The War Begins The Impact of Technology The Western and Eastern Front."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Great War 1914-1918 The War Begins The Impact of Technology The Western and Eastern Front

2 The Expected War European leadership believed the War would be a limited one Modern weapons, numerous alliances, the cult of militarism and the belief of cultural superior lead Europeans to believe the war to be a quick and decisive

3 Friends and Foes The alliance system allowed for weaker nations to act with a chip on their shoulders They were secure in the knowledge that a powerful nation supported them The Triple Entente (France, Britian and Russia) and faced off the Triple Alliance (Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy)

4 A War Based on Time Schedules? Military strategist used timetables to give their forces a military edge The Schlieffen Plan, called for Germany to immediately attack France using railroads to move troops quickly, removing France would allow Germany to fight Russia by itself Russia’s Mobilization Plan, plan was to begin moving troops on Germany before war declared French Plan XVII, plan to mass troops on Germany’s border for the one decisive battle to end the war

5 The Assassination of the Archduke Visiting Bosnia Austria’s Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the Austrian Empire is assassinated 28 June 1914. This triggers the war in Europe Austria invades Bosnia triggering the numerous alliances beginning the war

6 World War I Begins Europe expected a short quick war but in reality got a global conflict Japan and the U.S would join the Allies and the Ottoman Empire would join the Central Powers Technology and its adaptability will change the face of war forever

7 Technology and Trench Warfare New weapons like artillery, tanks, machine guns, submarines, biological weapons and airplanes multiplied the destructiveness of human life Forced to overcome technology the armies continued to concentrate on manpower as the force to break the stalemate

8 Technology and Trench Warfare

9 Trench Warfare Trench warfare dominates fighting along the western front in 1914 Hundreds of miles of trenches will be dug and house tens of thousands soldiers from artillery barrages and infantry attacks The area between two trench systems was known as “No Man’s Land”

10 Trench Warfare Trench system purpose was to protect soldiers from enemy fire A trench was typically a seven foot deep and six foot wide dug walkway protected by barb wire and sandbags Living conditions were horrible because of weather and dead soldiers

11 The Battle of Marne After smashing through Belgium in 1914 to invade France Germany decides to divide its army and send troops to the Russian border as well Weakened it faces the French and British at Marne and it is forced to dig in outside of Paris

12 The Battle of Marne Both sides hoping to out flank each other begin digging trenches in a “race to the sea” The strategy of trench warfare will now lengthen the war as does the beginning of a two front war

13 The Eastern Front Poor leadership and ill supplied troops hampered the Russians After severe losses the Russians hold off the Austrians even though they now control 20% of Russia Following the Russian Revolution of 1917, Russia withdraws from the war Russia signs a treaty with Germany in 1917 This allows Germany to shift troops back to the Western Front

14 The Western Front At Verdun Germany launches an offensive on British and French trench lines 10 months of artillery barrages and infantry wave attacks leave over 700,000 men dead Leadership philosophy on war is still fixated on using infantry to break the deadlock on the frontlines

15 A World At War War spreads into the Middle East because Germany’s ally the Ottoman Empire threatens the flow of oil from the Suez Canal Britian seizes Iraq in 1917 and sends Australian and New Zealand troops to open another front on the Gallipoli Peninsula The Gallipoli is a disaster for the British

16 The At Sea The British navy blockades landlocked Germany from supplies Germany in response launches u-boats to strangle British sea supply lines by using “unrestricted warfare” The invention of depth charges and the convoy system defeat the u-boat threat

17 The Blackest Year of The War Numerous Allied nations are removed from the War allow Germany to concentrate its forces on France and Britian Germany itself is suffering from shortages as the War continues

18 America Enters The War 1915 the ocean liner Lusitania is sunk by the Germans and 128 Americans are killed January 1917, Germany seeks an alliance with Mexico if it invades the U.S. in the Zimmerman Telegram April 1917, Germany sinks 5 American ships using submarines after it pledged not to do so America declares war April 6, 1917

19 The Real Face of War

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