Presentation on theme: "World War I - Introduction What do you already know?"— Presentation transcript:
World War I - Introduction What do you already know?
MAIN Causes of WWI M ilitarism – growth of militaries A lliances I mperialism N ationalism – pride in your country
Militarism The build up of armies, navies and weaponry Imperialist nations had sparked an arms race to defend their holdings and possibly gain or regain territory.
Alliances Created to protect national security and provide aide in the event of an attack.
Imperialism Dividing up areas of the world among the more powerful countries European powers competed with each other for raw materials and colonies
This map shows Africa in 1914 and shows how much land the major nations had taken over. BRITAINFRANCEGERMANYITALYBELGIUM Imperialism
Nationalism Nations who wanted back land that had natives living there (France and Russia) Areas that wanted to gain national independence from countries that had engulfed their culture (Czechs and Poles)
Nationalism Ethnic Map of Europe in 1914
Europe is a Powder Keg! One spark would start a war!
The assassination of the Archduke Francis Ferdinand.
Assassination of Archduke Archduke Francis Ferdinand - heir to the Austria-Hungary throne
The Black Hand Serbian terrorist organization Sent a small group of teenage operatives to assassinate the Archduke!
June 28 th, 1914
Sarajevo – June 28 th 1914
The Wrong Turn!
Assassination of Archduke Traveling w/ wife Sophie in Sarajevo Sarajevo – capital of Bosnia (providence in AH) Both were shot by a 19 yr old Bosnian Nationalist
Alliances Triple Entente Allies
Allies Nikola Pasic Serbia
Allies Czar Nicholas II Russia
Allies Georges Clemenceau France
Allies King George V England
Allies Vittorio Orlando Italy
Allies King Albert I Belgium
Allies Woodrow Wilson United States
Alliances Triple Alliance Central Powers
Central Powers Emperor Franz Josef Austria- Hungary
Central Powers Kaiser Wilhelm II Germany
Central Powers Sultan Mehmed V Ottoman Empire
Central Powers Tsar Ferdinand Bulgaria
The start of WWI…legos
World War I Everyone thought war would end in a week Instead had a stalemate – neither side could gain an advantage
Reason for the Stalemate New Weapon Technology Trench Warfare
Weapons and Tactics of World War I Bolt-Action Rifle Machine Gun Artillery Poisonous Gas Zeppelin Tanks Planes U-Boats
Bolt-Action Rifle Bolt-action rifles could fire up to 15 rounds per minute.
Machine Gun A machine gun could fire up to 400 rounds per minute. A machine gun had the fire power of approx. 100 rifles.
Artillery Artillery refers to large-caliber, mounted field guns.
Artillery Shells Artillery could fire shells distances of up to approx. 12,000 yards. Artillery shells could weigh up to 900 lbs. It could take up to 12 men to handle an artillery gun and load the shells.
Poisonous Gases Cause choking, blistering, vomiting, internal & external bleeding, blinding, a burning of lung tissue, & death. Gases lobbed into enemy trenches
Poisonous Gases Gases were often colorless & odorless, Could take up to 12 hours to take effect. Gas masks were eventually created
Zeppelins Zeppelins or blimps were airships filled with hydrogen to keep them afloat.
Tanks Armored vehicles that traveled on tracks Used to cross over tough terrain, But unable to cross trenches. Protected advancing troops across “no- man’s” land.
Planes One- or two-seat propeller planes equipped with a machine gun. Pilots engaged in “dogfights” in the air
Red Baron Manfred von Richthofen – German pilot with 80 victories
Red Baron ???
U-Boats Underwater ships that capable of launching torpedoes, or guided underwater bombs.
Flamethrower Gas canister strapped to back of soldier Sprayed burning fuel on it victims
Trenches were elongated pits dug 6-8 ft. into the earth, and stretching out over hundreds of miles. Trenches were only wide enough to allow two men to pass side-by-side.
Trench Warfare - Diagram
Barbed-wire was lined up in front of a trench to protect the men from attack.
The entrance to a “dugout”
Trench Warfare – Dugout
Trench Warfare Three interlocking trench lines would be used: a front line for attack and defense, a middle line of defense, and a rear line of reserves.
The distance between opposing trenches was called “no-man’s land”. This distance could be as short as 30 meters, or as wide as 1 mile.
Trench Warfare On command, soldiers from a trench would charge across “no-man’s” land and attempt to overrun the opponents trench.
A periscope would have been used to see the enemy, without putting a soldier in the direct line of fire.
Retrieving a dead soldier from “no-man’s land”
Trench Warfare Weapons on the front included: –Soldier’s would commonly use rifles, bayonets, spades, clubs, shotguns, helmets, and grenades –Armies would use larger items such as machine guns, mortars, artillery, gas, barbed-wire, aircraft, and mines
Christmas Truce 1914 German & British Troops 1915 German & French Troops Met in “No Man’s Land” Had a party & played soccer