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Chapter 27 World War I and Its Aftermath

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1 Chapter 27 World War I and Its Aftermath
-The Stage is Set -The Guns of August -A New Kind of Conflict -Winning the War -Making Peace Christopher Morales – Mr. Hernandez Period F

2 The Stage is Set -Alfred Nobel wanted the world to be more peaceful
-Women fought for the right to vote -1899 Universal Peace Conference

3 Pan-Slavism – Russia felt responsibility to protect all Slavs.
Germany gained control over Alsace and Lorraine from France. France wanted revenge. Pan-Slavism – Russia felt responsibility to protect all Slavs. 1912 – Balkan States attack Turkey. Nicknamed “Powder Keg” by 1914. Countries grew economic rivalries. These economic rivalries and international tensions led to the Arms Race.

4 -Alliances began to form -Central Powers
-Germany-Austria-Hungary-Russia-Italy -Allies -France-Britain -These alliances caused tensions to grow stronger.

5 The Guns of August -June 28 – Archduke Francis Ferdinand is murdered by Gavrilo Princip. Gavrilo murdered Ferdinand on Ferdinand’s visit to Serbia. This visit was found as an insult to Serbs. -Austria, therefore demanded an ultimatum: -Serbian officers involved in the plot must be punished -Serbia must allow Austria to conduct their own investigations -All anti-Austrian agitation must end

6 -Countries began to look to their allies for preparation for battle.
-Italy and Britain decided to remain neutral. -France and Russia both attacked Germany. -Germany began the Schlieffen Plan in which Germany would defeat France first and then proceed to attack Russia. Germany then invaded Belgium on August 3 which enraged Britain and caused Britain to declare war.

7 A New Kind of Conflict -Trench warfare was highly used in the western front. Trenches were an underground network of linked burrows, trenches and weapon emplacements. In trench warfare, food was also limited. -New weapons also began to appear such as machine guns, tanks, submarines, airplanes and gas masks.

8 -August 1914 Russia and Germany engaged in the battle of Tannenberg in which Russian peasants fought because the Russian army was poorly prepared. -Ottoman Empire joins the Central Powers in The Ottoman Empire was hit hard during the war as their outposts were attacked.

9 Winning the War -This war resulted in a total war, in which all natural resources were used in the war. -Both sides of the war used recruiting systems such as the draft. -Propaganda was heavily used resulting in a propaganda war.

10 -Women helped in the war effort as they took over jobs as men went off into the war. Some women served as military nurses that tended to wounded men in the war. -Germany began resorting to 15-year-old recruits and Britain had many casualties, food shortages and losses. Britain began calling for peace. -Russia began to experience bread riots that brought down the government and revolutions.

11 -May 15 – German submarine torpedoes the British Lusitania in which 1,200 passengers were killed including 128 Americans. -United States entered the war on the Allies Side. The United States joined the Allies side because of sympathy for France and cultural ties with Britain, besides the fact the Germans killed 128 Americans. -In 1917 the Zimmermann note was found stating that Germany would help Mexico regain lost land in the U.S. which intensified anti-German feelings.

12 -United States entered the war with the Fourteen Points
-United States entered the war with the Fourteen Points. This was a list of terms in which he called for secret treaties, freedom of the seas, free trade and reduction of arms. -The war came to an end on November 11, 1918 as the German government gave in to an armistice.

13 Making the Peace -The war cost about 8.5 million lives and even more people wounded or handicapped. The epidemic of influenza killed more people. -A Paris Peace Conference was held in which Wilson emphasized his fourteen point plan. Other representatives, known as the Big Three, presented their own issues.

14 -Britain and France gained land from Germany.
-In June 1919 the Treaty of Versailles was held in which the Germans were forced to sign the treaty made by the Allies. The treaty involved reparations that Germany must pay. The treaty was also aimed at weakening Germany. -Britain and France gained land from Germany. -The League of Nations was formed to prevent wars and bring Wilson’s dream of peace to reality.

15 4. A major cause of World War I was ___________
Questions 1. In 1917, Bolshevik leaders in Russia sought peace with Germany because the new Russian government ________ 2. In Eastern Europe after World War I, the greatest obstacle to national unity in many nation-states was the ________ 3. Which statement best describes the relationship between World War I and the Russian Revolution? 4. A major cause of World War I was ___________ 5. Why was the Balkan region referred to as the “Powder Keg of Europe” prior to World War I?

16 Answers 1. wanted to retain power and avoid German occupation
2. great ethnic diversity found in the region 3. World War I created conditions within Russia that helped trigger a revolution 4. the existence of opposing alliances 5. Nationalistic and imperialistic rivalries were increasing.

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