Try again….. List the similarities and differences you can see between guerilla warfare and trench warfare.
“The enemy advances, we retreat. The enemy camps, we harass. The enemy tires, we attack. The enemy retreats, we pursue.” Mao Zedong 1.What do the following quotes mean: “the enemy advances, we retreat”? “the enemy camps, we harass”? “the enemy tires, we attack?” “the enemy retreats, we pursue”? 2.Use the images and quote above to describe how similar, or different, you think guerrilla warfare is from trench warfare? 3.When and why do you think an army would use guerrilla tactics? 4.Do you think guerrilla tactics would work? Explain your answer.
So what is guerrilla warfare? Guerrilla warfare “ a small group of fighters use ambushes (surprise attacks) and raids to fight a larger army. The guerrilla army uses surprise in attacking vulnerable targets in enemy territory.”
Features of guerrilla warfare….. Guerrilla organization ranges from smalll groups of a few dozen guerrillas, to thousands of fighters For successful operations, surprise must be achieved by the guerrillas. Operatives will "case" or analyze a location or potential target in depth relationships with civil populations are one of the most important factors in their success or failure A friendly population is of great importance to guerrilla fighters, providing shelter, supplies, financing, intelligence and recruits. Mobility and speed are the keys and wherever possible the guerrilla must live off the land, or draw support from the people "the people" become the guerrilla's supply base.
Questions 1.How many people can fight in a guerrilla army? 2.What two things does a guerrilla army need to help it be successful? 3.What things do a “friendly population” provide? 4.What two things are key for a guerrilla army? 5.Who are the guerrilla army supply base?
Guerrilla Wars Successful Arab Revolt 1916-1918 Haitian Revolution Hezbollah in southern Lebanon Philippines' during the Japanese occupation of WWII Irish War of Independence 1919-1921; campaign organized by Michael Collins Vietnam War 1959-1975 China (Communists vs. Nationalists) Unsuccessful Irish Civil War 1922-23 Nazi German Werewolf movement 1945 Tibet 1958-1974 Argentina 1969-1981 Second Sudanese Civil War 1983-2005 Parrari in Pakistan Kachin Independent Army in Burma
The Vietnam War, 1959-1975 Between 1945 and 1954, the Vietnamese waged an war against French for independence The defeat of France was followed by a peace conference in Geneva, in which Laos, Cambodia, and Vietnam received their independence and Vietnam was temporarily divided between an anti-Communist South and a Communist North. In 1956, South Vietnam refused to hold elections for the people to decide on whether Vietnam should be joined together. By 1958, Communist-led guerrillas known as the National Liberation Front or Viet Cong had begun to battle the South Vietnamese government To support the South’s government, the United States sent in 2,000 military advisors, a number that grew to 16,300 in 1963. In 1965 America bombed North Vietnam and sent soldiers to Southern Vietnam to fight against the NLF In January 1973 U.S. forces were withdrawn from Vietnam In April 1975, South Vietnam surrendered to the North and Vietnam was reunited.
The Vietnam War, 1959-1975 When the NLF (National Liberation Front) entered a village they obeyed a strict code of behaviour. These included: (1)Not to do what is likely to damage the land and crops or spoil the houses and belongings of the people; (2)Not to insist on buying or borrowing what the people are not willing to sell or lend; (3)Never to break our word; (4)Not to do or speak what is likely to make people believe that we hold them in contempt; (5)To help them in their daily work (harvesting, fetching firewood, carrying water, sewing, etc.) The NLF took the property of the large landowners and gave it to the peasants (poor farmers). In some cases, the landowners were executed (killed) as a punishment for the way they had treated the peasants in the past. In return for the land they had been given, the peasants agreed to help the NLF by feeding and hiding them. In some cases, the peasants also agreed to take up arms with the NLF and help 'liberate' other villages. 1.Look at the rules the NLF had to follow. How do you think these rules would encourage the people of Vietnam to support guerrilla warfare? 2.What did the peasants gain from the NLF? 3.Why do you think the NLF executed landowners?
Booby Traps This device is a simple wooden box made of boards joined together with four corner posts. The box has a lightweight-top but the bottom is removed. Barbed spikes are placed in the ground at the bottom pointing upward. This trap is usually set up on dirt roads and trails to take advantage of favorable camouflage. 1.How can tunnels and booby traps help a guerrilla army win a battle?
More Booby Traps…. 1.Do you think the way the NLF fought against the Southern Vietnamese and American soldiers was fair? Why? Why not? Explain you answer.
TASK: Plan of attack Using your defence/attack plan from the last lesson The defence now have the tanks, mines and heavy artillery that belonged to the attackers The attackers are allowed to use guerrilla tactics.....tunnels, booby traps, home made bombs, help from local villages, stealing equipment from the enemy, surprise attacks etc. In your groups, plan your attack and defence. Then combine your ideas and list the advantages and disadvantages of each Who wins? Why? EXTENSION: How important do you think technology and weapons are when fighting guerrilla warfare? Explain your answer using examples and information from the slides and information from previous lessons.