3 Section 1: War Breaks Out in Europe Causes of World War I- Europe was seen as a “powder keg – it only needs a spark to set the whole thing off” due to some main causes…
4 Section 1: War Breaks Out in Europe Causes of World War I (con’t)A) Imperialism: countries were competing for land in Africa, Asia, etc. and Germany wanted to keep upB) Nationalism: People in Europe loved their nation and were very protective, loyal, and proud. Some ethnic groups wanted their own country, rather than be ruled by others.
5 Section 1: War Breaks Out in Europe Causes of World War I (con’t)C) Militarism: Many countries believed that they needed a very strong military, building up their army and navy forcesD) Alliances: Different countries formed secret treaties with another country to help protect in case another country attacked
6 Archduke Franz Ferdinand Sent to SerbiaTo help relationsbetween Austria-Hungary and theSerbsSerbs hated it!Did not want todeal with them!Seen as invadersWhat happened?(see HistoryChannel video…)Franz Ferdinand, Archduke of Austria and his Wife Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg one hour before………. June 28, 1914
7 Section 1: War Breaks Out in Europe Causes of World War I (con’t)The “Spark”: In June 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife were shot by a Serbian man in Sarajevo.When Austria-Hungary found out that the gov’t of Serbia gave the man the weapons, they declared war.Princip (the assassin)
8 Section 1: War Breaks Out in Europe Causes of World War I (con’t)- Russia helped Serbia, so then Germany went to war against France, and then Britain had to help them, and so on and so on…- This led Europe to split into two different “sides”:The Central Powers and the Allied Powers
10 REVIEW Who was on which side? Central Powers: Allies: Germany Austria-HungaryOttoman EmpireBulgariaRussiaFranceGreat BritainItalyJapanUnited States (1917)Why isn’t the United States involved at first?
11 America did not getinvolved because:The Monroe Doctrineworked both ways (wecan’t get involved inEurope’s problems, justlike they couldn’t for ours2) America didn’t reallywant to get involved inthis mess…unless it hadto become involved
12 Section 1: War Breaks Out in Europe Stalemate in the Trenches- the French were able to hold off Germany’s attack at the First Battle of the Marne in 1914, but…..- both sides then dug in for trench warfare along the Western frontSee map next page
14 Section 1: War Breaks Out in Europe Stalemate in the Trenches- neither side could win and each attack was met with death- Battle of Somme (July-Nov 1916) led to 1.2 million dead/wounded and only 7 miles of land was gained for the AlliesMore on trench warfare…PBS website/map
15 Youtube clip from “The Somme” from BBC trailer (2)
16 Next Slide: “The Somme” w/death & over the top (2)
20 Section 1: War Breaks Out in Europe War of New Technology:- new technology led to more deaths- British tanks were used to fight and cross the trenches- machine guns fired over 600 bullets a minute, killing efficiently- poison gas was used by both sides, burning and blinding soldiers
21 Section 1: War Breaks Out in Europe War of New Tech (con’t):- airplanes were used for the first time in warfare during WWI (see Flyboys clips)- “ace” pilots like the German “Red Baron” became famous- German submarines, called U-Boats sank many ships at seaSee “WWI Tech” videoYoutube “Red Baron”)
22 Section 1: War Breaks Out in Europe America’s Path To War- President Woodrow Wilson was against America joining the war, and many Americans agreed with him.- German U-boats started sinking British merchant (supply) ships in response to Britain’s naval blockade of German ports
23 Section 1: War Breaks Out in Europe America’s Path To War- in May 1915, the Germans sank the British passenger ship Lusitaniakilling 1,198 people, including 128 Americans- Wilson demanded an apology and a promise that the Germans would not use unrestricted submarine warfare (sinking merchant ships without warning) and they agreed and we accepted itNote in Bottle After Lusitania Disaster
24 Section 1: War Breaks Out in Europe America’s Path To War- in 1917, Germany started sinking ships full-force again, knowing it would get us in the war (but they hoped they could end it before we got there)- the Zimmerman Telegram was discovered, which had Germany promising Mexico their land (Texas, New Mex, AZ) in return for fighting against America in the war- this was the last straw, and the U.S. declared war on Germany (1917)
25 Section 1: War Breaks Out in Europe Revolution in Russia- By 1917, Russia’s army was in trouble and the country was starving- the Bolshevik Revolution, led by Vladimir Lenin, occurred and a communist government was established- Communism is where the government runs/owns the economyVladimir Lenin
26 Section 1: War Breaks Out in Europe Revolution in Russia- Lenin signed a peace treaty with Germany in 1918, and Russia pulled out of the war- this let Germany send all of its troops, etc. to France (before they had been split fighting both them and Russia)- France was in big trouble and the Allies really needed the United States to hurry up and get there!Endangered:French!See map…
28 Moving to Section 2 America Joins the Fight What does America do now that is is joining the war? What preparations?How does the War change now that America is part of it?
29 Section 2: America Joins the Fight Raising an Army & a NavyThe U.S. needed soldiers, so it started the Selective Service Act in 1917 (all males between must sign up for military)By 1918’s end, 3 million troops had been drafted to the forcesAbout 2 million soldiers went to Europe to fightLed by Gen. John J. Pershing (of Nebraska!), they fought in Europe under his command
30 Section 2: America Joins the Fight Raising an Army & a NavyNearly 50,000 women also served in WWIThey were allowed to serve in the military for the first timeNurses made up most of the over 1,000 who went to EuropeAlso worked as interpreters, switchboard operators, entertainers, drivers, etc.
31 Section 2: America Joins the Fight American Ships Make a DifferenceGerman U-boats were sinking supply ships very oftenThe Allies started a convoy system to protect shipsDestroyer ships would surround supply ships to protect themThe Allies started laying down sea-mines in the water to blow up U-boats as wellThis reduced the # of ship losses
32 Moving to Sec. 3 “Life on the Home Front” How did Americans back in the USA support the war effort?What else was going on in the U.S. during this time?What disease killed many people during this period?
33 Section 3: Life on the Home Front Intolerance and SuspicionWhy did Garland, Nebraska change their name during this time?Why did many Lutheran churches change the language they used during their church services during this time?Discuss…
34 Section 3: Life on the Home Front Intolerance and SuspicionAnti-German propaganda got Americans fired up for the war but also turned them against anything German in AmericaTowns changed names, sauerkraut became “liberty cabbage”, hamburger became “Salisbury steak”, and anti-immigrant issues arose as well
35 Section 3: Life on the Home Front Mobilizing for WarThe U.S. first needed money in order to fund the war effortWe spent $35.5 billion dollars on WWI - with 2/3 of the money raised by war bonds.War bonds were loans given by citizens that they gave to the government to be paid back laterLiberty Loan drives used celebrities, posters, etc. to encourage people to support it
36 Section 3: Life on the Home Front Mobilizing for WarSchoolchildren collected items that could help such as tin cans, paper, toothpaste tubes, etc.Others grew “Victory Gardens” to feed their families so that other food could go to soldiersWomen’s groups got together to sew and knit clothing, etc. itemsWheatless Mon. and Wed. (no bread), meatless Tuesdays, no Sunday drives, etc. all helped save materials, etc.
37 Section 3: Life on the Home Front Mobilizing for WarThe U.S. government took over much of the economy to control materials made, prices, and labor agreements to keep production upThe gov’t also produced a lot of propaganda from writers, artists, film-makers, etc. to rally Americans to support the effortWhy would the government go to such lengths to do this?Why would Americans go to these lengths? Would they still?
38 Section 3: Life on the Home Front Intolerance and SuspicionIn 1917, Congress passed the Espionage Act which fined or sent people to prison for anti-war activitiesIn 1918, Congress passed the Sedition Act which made it illegal to even criticize the warHundreds went to jail and the Supreme Court upheld the laws in it’s ruling that Free Speech (1st amendment) could be limited if it caused panic, etc. especially during wartimeWhat would Americans’ response to these laws be like today? Discuss…
39 Section 3: Life on the Home Front The Flu Epidemic of 1918A deadly flu epidemic swept the globe in 1918, killing more than 20 million people by 1919It was spread around the world by soldiers and had no known cureOver 500,000 Americans died as people tried to protect themselves by shutting down schools, etc.More than 1/4 of U.S. army soldiers got the flu and the German army was hit harder also
40 Back to Section 2:Now that the US is in the war,How does it end?
41 Section 2: America Joins the Fight U.S. Troops Enter the WarIn 1917 the U.S. could send 14,000 troops to helpIt took about a year to get the rest of the troops, etc. to EuropeGermany rushed its troops from Russia (since Russia signed a peace treaty with Germany) to France to quickly try to take France before the U.S. got thereThey reached the Marne river (50 miles from Paris) again…To the Rescue!= HELP!FrancePBS website/map
42 Section 2: America Joins the Fight Germany Stops FightingIn early November, 1918 German navy mutinied (rebelled against its commanders) and its allies dropped outNov. 9th, the Kaiser resignedOn November 11, 1918 at 11am (11th hour,11th day, of the 11th month) the Germans agreed to stop the fighting and the war was now overWe now celebrate this day as Veteran’s Day!
43 Section 2: America Joins the Fight Germany Stops FightingThe aftermath of the war:About 8.5 million soldiers deadAround 21 million woundedAbout 12 million civilian deaths from starvation, bombing, disease, etc.Total of about 20 million deaths, all from one “spark” that started it all
44 Moving to Section 4 How did World War I change the world? How did it change relations between countries?What was done to try to prevent another World War?How did it effect the countries that fought in the war?
45 Europe at start of WWIEurope after WWIHow are they different?How and why did this happen?
46 Section 4: The Legacy of WW1 Wilson’s 14 PointsPresident Wilson offered Congress 14 points for world peace. Highlights…Smaller military forcesNo more secret treaties/alliancesFree trade and freedom on the seasNew country boundaries in Europe (more countries made)14th Point: Form a League of Nations to help negotiate and prevent major wars from breaking outThis was the beginning basically of the current United Nations
47 Section 4: The Legacy of WW1 Treaty of VersaillesLeaders in Europe did not agree with Wilson on some things, and they wanted Germany to pay heavily for their part in the warThe Treaty forced Germany to accept full blame, took away their colonies, and made them pay $33 billion in reparations to pay for the destruction caused by the warThe treaty also divided up land from Austria-Hungary and Ottomon empire into smaller, independent countries (like Yugoslavia & Poland)
48 Section 4: The Legacy of WW1 Treaty of VersaillesThe League of Nations was also part of the treaty and was heavily debatedThe U.S. Senate argued for weeks on whether to accept the treaty and join the League of Nations (didn’t want to get involved in Europe’s problems again)Wilson toured the country intensely to try to drum up support for the League of Nations & the need for the U.S. to join
49 Section 4: The Legacy of WW1 Treaty of VersaillesWilson suffered a stroke in Sept, 1919 and never fully recoveredThe U.S. didn’t accept membership into the League of NationsThe reparations, etc. in the treaty helped “sow the seeds” with hurt feelings in Europe that helped lead to WWII
50 Section 4: The Legacy of WW1 Longing for NormalcyBy 1920, labor strikes, race riots, the Red Scare and the League of Nations debate had worn citizens out and voters wanted a breakWarren G. Harding, Republican candidate for the 1920 Presidential election promised a “return to normalcy” for AmericaHarding won a landslide election and Americans looked toward a new hope and a new beginning…Sound familiar???????Next slide for closure…
51 Closing Thoughts… The world after WW1… New countries in Europe & League of Nations (but without the USA in it)An angry and wounded GermanyCommunism in RussiaThe USA was tired of war, global issues, etc. and was ready for a new PresidentOn the horizon… the Roaring 20s and the Great Depression