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WORLD WAR I MOI. Slide 2 Total War Slide 3 SOURCES Jones, The Art of War in the Western World, pp. 434-488 Preston and Wise, Men In Arms, pp. 259-277.

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Presentation on theme: "WORLD WAR I MOI. Slide 2 Total War Slide 3 SOURCES Jones, The Art of War in the Western World, pp. 434-488 Preston and Wise, Men In Arms, pp. 259-277."— Presentation transcript:

1 WORLD WAR I MOI

2 Slide 2 Total War

3 Slide 3 SOURCES Jones, The Art of War in the Western World, pp Preston and Wise, Men In Arms, pp Belleau Wood Battle Study Guide: MCSF, Rota Spain. Selected readings.

4 Slide 4 LEARNING OBJECTIVES Be familiar with the timeline and key events of the warBe familiar with the timeline and key events of the war Describe the Schlieffen PlanDescribe the Schlieffen Plan Describe how trench warfare evolved from the early part of the war through the German offensive in 1918Describe how trench warfare evolved from the early part of the war through the German offensive in 1918

5 Slide 5 LEARNING OBJECTIVES List the new equipment introduced during the war and how it was employedList the new equipment introduced during the war and how it was employed Be familiar with the Battle of Belleau WoodBe familiar with the Battle of Belleau Wood Be familiar with the Treaty of Versailles and the end of the warBe familiar with the Treaty of Versailles and the end of the war

6 Slide 6 Background Numerous “limited wars”, but no dramatic developments between American Civil and First World WarsNumerous “limited wars”, but no dramatic developments between American Civil and First World Wars 1870 Prussia defeats France1870 Prussia defeats France Both sides (especially French) learn the same lessons America learned in Civil WarBoth sides (especially French) learn the same lessons America learned in Civil War Rifles mandate a change in tacticsRifles mandate a change in tactics Breach loaders facilitate fire and movementBreach loaders facilitate fire and movement Railway/Telegraph is key to victoryRailway/Telegraph is key to victory French bitter over loss of territoryFrench bitter over loss of territory

7 Slide 7 OVERVIEW 65 million combatants from 30 countries representing every continent65 million combatants from 30 countries representing every continent 29 million become casualties29 million become casualties Naval battles around the world and land battles in Europe, Africa, and AsiaNaval battles around the world and land battles in Europe, Africa, and Asia Triple Alliance = Germany, Austria, ItalyTriple Alliance = Germany, Austria, Italy +Turkey + Bulgaria - Italy = Central Powers+Turkey + Bulgaria - Italy = Central Powers Entente Cordiale = Britain, FranceEntente Cordiale = Britain, France + Russia + Italy + (later) US = Allied Powers+ Russia + Italy + (later) US = Allied Powers Revolutionary technology, but evolutionary tacticsRevolutionary technology, but evolutionary tactics

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9 Slide 9 ROAD TO WAR Germany, Italy, Russia, Austro-Hungary all fairly recently “unified” with significant internal unrestGermany, Italy, Russia, Austro-Hungary all fairly recently “unified” with significant internal unrest Germany seeks new markets/prestige of coloniesGermany seeks new markets/prestige of colonies Massive arms raceMassive arms race Multiple and extensive alliancesMultiple and extensive alliances

10 Slide June 28, 1914 Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the throne of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, is assassinated in SarajevoJune 28, 1914 Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the throne of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, is assassinated in Sarajevo July 28 Austria-Hungary declares war on RussiaJuly 28 Austria-Hungary declares war on Russia August 1 Germany declares war on RussiaAugust 1 Germany declares war on Russia August 3 Germany declares war on FranceAugust 3 Germany declares war on France August 4 Great Britain declares war on GermanyAugust 4 Great Britain declares war on Germany

11 Slide August 4 Germany invades neutral BelgiumAugust 4 Germany invades neutral Belgium August German army achieves its greatest victory of the war on the Eastern front at the Battle of TannenbergAugust German army achieves its greatest victory of the war on the Eastern front at the Battle of Tannenberg September 5-10 First Battle of the Marne halts German invasion in FranceSeptember 5-10 First Battle of the Marne halts German invasion in France September 15 First trenches of the Western front are dugSeptember 15 First trenches of the Western front are dug

12 Slide January 19, 1915 First German Zeppelin air raid on EnglandJanuary 19, 1915 First German Zeppelin air raid on England February 4 Germany declares a submarine blockade of Great Britain. Any boat approaching England is considered a legitimate targetFebruary 4 Germany declares a submarine blockade of Great Britain. Any boat approaching England is considered a legitimate target April 22-May 5 Second Battle of Ypres marks first use of chemical weaponsApril 22-May 5 Second Battle of Ypres marks first use of chemical weapons April 25 Allies begin assault on Gallipoli peninsula in TurkeyApril 25 Allies begin assault on Gallipoli peninsula in Turkey

13 Slide May 7 Sinking of the passenger ship LusitaniaMay 7 Sinking of the passenger ship Lusitania Killed 1200, 123 AmericansKilled 1200, 123 Americans May 23 Italy declares war on Austria-HungaryMay 23 Italy declares war on Austria-Hungary August 30 Germany responds to U.S. anger by ceasing to sink ships without warningAugust 30 Germany responds to U.S. anger by ceasing to sink ships without warning December 28 Allies begin withdrawal of troops from GallipoliDecember 28 Allies begin withdrawal of troops from Gallipoli

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15 Slide February 21 - December 18, 1916 The longest battle of the war, the Battle of Verdun, is fought to a draw with an estimated one million casualtiesFebruary 21 - December 18, 1916 The longest battle of the war, the Battle of Verdun, is fought to a draw with an estimated one million casualties July 1-November 18 The Battle of the Somme results in an estimated one million casualties and no breakthrough for the AlliesJuly 1-November 18 The Battle of the Somme results in an estimated one million casualties and no breakthrough for the Allies December 31 Russian Rasputin, is murdered by relatives of the TsarDecember 31 Russian Rasputin, is murdered by relatives of the Tsar

16 Slide February 1, 1917 Germany again declares unrestricted submarine warfareFebruary 1, 1917 Germany again declares unrestricted submarine warfare April 6 The United States declares war on GermanyApril 6 The United States declares war on Germany July 6 T.E. Lawrence and the Arabs capture AquabaJuly 6 T.E. Lawrence and the Arabs capture Aquaba July 16-November 10 Third Battles of Ypres, known as Passchendaele, results in minor gains, but still no breakthroughJuly 16-November 10 Third Battles of Ypres, known as Passchendaele, results in minor gains, but still no breakthrough

17 Slide November 7 Bolshevik socialists, led by Lenin, overthrow Kerinsky governmentNovember 7 Bolshevik socialists, led by Lenin, overthrow Kerinsky government December 3 The new Russian government, represented by Leon Trotsky, signs an armistice with GermanyDecember 3 The new Russian government, represented by Leon Trotsky, signs an armistice with Germany December 9 British capture JerusalemDecember 9 British capture Jerusalem

18 Slide January 8, 1918 President Woodrow Wilson declares his 14 points as the path to world peaceJanuary 8, 1918 President Woodrow Wilson declares his 14 points as the path to world peace March 21 Germans launch the first of five major offensives to win the war before American troops appear in the trenchesMarch 21 Germans launch the first of five major offensives to win the war before American troops appear in the trenches April 25 British and Australian troops stop the German advance near AmiensApril 25 British and Australian troops stop the German advance near Amiens

19 Slide May 23 German shells land on ParisMay 23 German shells land on Paris August 8 Allied counteroffensives on the Somme push the German army backAugust 8 Allied counteroffensives on the Somme push the German army back September 29 Allied troops break through the German fortifications at the Hindenberg lineSeptember 29 Allied troops break through the German fortifications at the Hindenberg line November 11 At eleven o'clock on the eleventh day of the eleventh month of 1918, the war ends as Germany and Allies sign an ArmisticeNovember 11 At eleven o'clock on the eleventh day of the eleventh month of 1918, the war ends as Germany and Allies sign an Armistice

20 Slide 20 Schlieffen Plan Germans want to finish off French before Russia is ready to fightGermans want to finish off French before Russia is ready to fight Germans believe French will immediately try to retake Alsace-LorraineGermans believe French will immediately try to retake Alsace-Lorraine Original plan called for economy of force on the left while heavily weighting the right flankOriginal plan called for economy of force on the left while heavily weighting the right flank Von Moltke revised and distributed forces more evenly across the front Von Moltke revised and distributed forces more evenly across the front Plan failed when Germans were held up by Belgians, then stopped by French and British at the Battle of the MarnePlan failed when Germans were held up by Belgians, then stopped by French and British at the Battle of the Marne Russians also mobilized more quickly than expectedRussians also mobilized more quickly than expected

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22 Slide 22 STALEMATE Allies halt Central Powers; both sides dig inAllies halt Central Powers; both sides dig in No flanks for either side to attackNo flanks for either side to attack Barbed wire entanglements up to 150’ deepBarbed wire entanglements up to 150’ deep Neither side gains more than 10 miles in over 2 yearsNeither side gains more than 10 miles in over 2 years Mass is supreme principleMass is supreme principle Massed assaultsMassed assaults Massed firesMassed fires

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24 Slide 24 Trench Warfare Machine gun and artillery make it difficult to attack a trenchMachine gun and artillery make it difficult to attack a trench Huge artillery preps make “No Man’s Land” virtually impassableHuge artillery preps make “No Man’s Land” virtually impassable Huge casualties for attackersHuge casualties for attackers

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26 Slide 26 Trench Warfare Evolves Laffargue writes pamphlet; French publish, but otherwise ignore it; Germans acquire copy and implementLaffargue writes pamphlet; French publish, but otherwise ignore it; Germans acquire copy and implement Three group (squad) infiltration:Three group (squad) infiltration: Squad one finds and fixes enemySquad one finds and fixes enemy Squad two finds and exploits weak spotsSquad two finds and exploits weak spots Squad three supports two and exploits breachesSquad three supports two and exploits breaches Strong points reduced later from rear/flanksStrong points reduced later from rear/flanks Combined arms:Combined arms: grenades, machine guns, flame throwers in infantry squadsgrenades, machine guns, flame throwers in infantry squads Arty fires smoke, gas, HE to keep defenders’ heads downArty fires smoke, gas, HE to keep defenders’ heads down Maneuver warfare at the tactical levelManeuver warfare at the tactical level

27 RUTHLESS TACTICS Chemical warfare made trench warfare more horrible Chemical warfare made trench warfare more horrible Mustard/Blister agents deployed Mustard/Blister agents deployed First used on French in 1915 First used on French in 1915

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29 Slide 29 Tanks Brits introduce in Sept 1916Brits introduce in Sept 1916 Means to cross No Man’s Land with protection from machine gunsMeans to cross No Man’s Land with protection from machine guns Initially employed piecemeal and in too small numbers to be decisiveInitially employed piecemeal and in too small numbers to be decisive Unreliable and slowUnreliable and slow

30 Slide 30 Tanks Battle of Somme, Sept of 60 tanks make it into battle Scattered across 3 mile front Cambria, Nov 1917 Used in mass (300 tanks) Opened 12x6 mile front Amiens, August tanks, 13 infantry divisions, 2 cavalry divisions, 2000 artillery pieces, 800 aircraft First modern “combined-arms” battle

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32 Slide 32 Submarines New aspect of “Total War”New aspect of “Total War” Targeting “neutral merchant” shipsTargeting “neutral merchant” ships Germans announce submarine blockadeGermans announce submarine blockade Part physical, part psychological weaponPart physical, part psychological weapon Draws Allied resources away from offensive operationsDraws Allied resources away from offensive operations Civilian control of productionCivilian control of production Sinking of ships with US passengers is major factor in US’s eventual entry into the warSinking of ships with US passengers is major factor in US’s eventual entry into the war

33 Slide 33 Aviation “Red Baron” Used initially for reconnaissance/spottingUsed initially for reconnaissance/spotting Wireless communication critical development in spotting Wireless communication critical development in spotting Arial combat originally a counter-reconnaissance functionArial combat originally a counter-reconnaissance function Troops on the ground don’t like the planes overhead….Troops on the ground don’t like the planes overhead…. By the end of the war, planes were being used to drop bombs on railways, intersections, factories, etc…By the end of the war, planes were being used to drop bombs on railways, intersections, factories, etc…

34 “Jenny” JN-4

35 Jaeger

36 Slide 36 Belleau Wood 200 acre battle cemetery. After WWI the area was given to the United States Govt. as a Battle Field Memorial in honor of the gallant Marines who gave their lives in protection of the French nation and its people. After WWI the area was given to the United States Govt. as a Battle Field Memorial in honor of the gallant Marines who gave their lives in protection of the French nation and its people.

37 Slide 37 Battle for Belleau Wood 4 June 1918 Germans reach their “high water mark”, but are turned back by 5 th Marines at Les Mares Farms, 50 miles from Paris4 June 1918 Germans reach their “high water mark”, but are turned back by 5 th Marines at Les Mares Farms, 50 miles from Paris 5 June 1918, 4th Marine Brigade (5 th and 6 th Regiments, 6 th Machine Gun Battalion) enters Belleau Wood to stop German advance5 June 1918, 4th Marine Brigade (5 th and 6 th Regiments, 6 th Machine Gun Battalion) enters Belleau Wood to stop German advance French are retreating as Marines arriveFrench are retreating as Marines arrive One Frenchman advises Marines to join the retreat, Capt Lloyd Williams replies “Retreat, hell, we just got here”One Frenchman advises Marines to join the retreat, Capt Lloyd Williams replies “Retreat, hell, we just got here” Marines begin picking off Germans at 800 yards (200 yds considered far to Germans)Marines begin picking off Germans at 800 yards (200 yds considered far to Germans)

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39 Slide years later, we shall never forget. 80 th Anniversary 80 th Anniversary

40 Slide 40 French and US troops gather every year to pay respects To their fallen brothers.

41 Slide 41 Belleau Wood Dan Daly: “Come on you sons of bitches. Do you want to live forever”Dan Daly: “Come on you sons of bitches. Do you want to live forever” Marines fight until 16 June when an Army unit relieves themMarines fight until 16 June when an Army unit relieves them 22 June Marines reenter fight22 June Marines reenter fight 26 June Major Shearer sends signal, “Woods are now entirely US Marine Corps.”26 June Major Shearer sends signal, “Woods are now entirely US Marine Corps.” Victory was not the product of sound tactics, but of the discipline and determination of the BrigadeVictory was not the product of sound tactics, but of the discipline and determination of the Brigade

42 Slide 42 Esprit de Corps I believe they are soldiers from Montezuma, At least when they advanced this morning they were all singing “From the Halls of Montezuma, to the Shores of Tripoli” French soldier describing the Marines in Belleau Wood Devil Dog title given to the Marines by German soldiers for their ferocious fighting

43 Slide 43 Treaty of Versailles Big 4 meet in Paris Big 4 meet in Paris –Woodrow Wilson –Lloyd George of Britain –Orlando of Italy –Clemenceau of France Signed June 28, 1919 Signed June 28, 1919 Ended War Ended War re-established boundaries for Germany re-established boundaries for Germany

44 Slide 44 Summary Idea of romantic war comes to an end. Idea of romantic war comes to an end. Trench Warfare? Trench Warfare? New weapons and their use. New weapons and their use. Marines, and Belleau Wood. Marines, and Belleau Wood. Treaty of Versailles Treaty of Versailles

45 Slide 45 Questions?


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