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Exploring American History Unit VII- The Beginning of Modern America Chapter 23 Section 1 The Road to War.

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Presentation on theme: "Exploring American History Unit VII- The Beginning of Modern America Chapter 23 Section 1 The Road to War."— Presentation transcript:

1 Exploring American History Unit VII- The Beginning of Modern America Chapter 23 Section 1 The Road to War

2 The Big Idea In 1914 tensions in Europe exploded into the deadliest war the world had ever seen. Main Ideas Many factors contributed to the outbreak of World War I. European nations suffered massive casualties in the war’s early battles.

3 Causes of World War I No one event or person caused the Great War. There were many factors that contributed to mobilization of the belligerents No one event or person caused the Great War. There were many factors that contributed to mobilization of the belligerents  Five Major factors often identified as causes of World War I (but not causes of U.S. entry)  Militarism  Alliances  Imperialism  Nationalism  Events or Economics

4 Nationalism Nationalism, a strong sense of pride and loyalty to one’s nation or culture, created tension between nations. Austria-Hungary included people from many cultural groups. Slavic nationalists wanted to break away from Austria- Hungary and join the independent Slavic country of Serbia. Imperialism Nations competed for control of territories both in Europe and overseas. Germany took the Alsace-Lorraine region from France in 1871, and France wanted it back. Main Idea 1: Many factors contributed to the outbreak of World War I. Militarism Nations focused resources on militarism, the aggressive strengthening of armed forces. Raced to build armies and navies Made alliances to protect themselves

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6 The Spark fear and distrust Feelings of fear and distrust grew among European powers in the early 1900s. Austria-Hungary annexed Bosnia and Herzegovina In 1908 Austria-Hungary annexed Bosnia and Herzegovina. – –Slavic nationalists resisted violently; wanted to be a part of Serbia June 28, 1914: Archduke Francis Ferdinand of Austria- Hungary was assassinated June 28, 1914: Archduke Francis Ferdinand of Austria- Hungary was assassinated in Sarajevo. – –Killed by a Serb nationalist, Gavrilo Princip Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia Nationsmobilize Nations began to mobilize, or prepare their militaries, for war.

7 Allied Powers Central Powers RussiaRussia, an ally of Serbia FranceFrance, an ally of Russia BelgiumBelgium, brought into the fighting because Germany marched through it to get to France Great BritainGreat Britain, an ally of Belgium Austria-HungaryAustria-Hungary GermanyGermany, an ally of Austria-Hungary Pulled into the Fighting

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10 The Great War- Two Sides Allied Powers- Triple Entente Allied Powers- Triple Entente –Serbia –Russia –France –Great Britain –Belgium –Italy –Portugal –Greece –Japan –United States Central Powers- Triple Alliance Central Powers- Triple Alliance –Austria-Hungary –Germany Empire –Bulgaria –Turkish Empire –Italy

11 The Great War, as contemporaries called it -- was the first man-made catastrophe of the 20th century. The Great War, as contemporaries called it -- was the first man-made catastrophe of the 20th century. In the weeks after the assassination, none of the critical leaders had the power or will to slow down the decisions, actions, reactions and attitude shifts of key government and military leaders. In the weeks after the assassination, none of the critical leaders had the power or will to slow down the decisions, actions, reactions and attitude shifts of key government and military leaders. By August, millions of Europeans -- especially the military and diplomatic leaders of Austria- Hungary, Germany and Russia -- saw war as the way to save their honor, as well as to solve the internal and international problems that needed to be resolved. By August, millions of Europeans -- especially the military and diplomatic leaders of Austria- Hungary, Germany and Russia -- saw war as the way to save their honor, as well as to solve the internal and international problems that needed to be resolved.

12 World War I Begins - The Great War Kaiser Wilhelm II on July 5 th pledged that Germany would fully support Austria-Hungary in any action against Serbia. Kaiser Wilhelm II on July 5 th pledged that Germany would fully support Austria-Hungary in any action against Serbia. On July 23, 1914, Austria- Hungary presented Serbia with a lengthy list of demands. On July 23, 1914, Austria- Hungary presented Serbia with a lengthy list of demands. On July 28, 1914, Austria- Hungary declared war on Serbia. World War I had begun. On July 28, 1914, Austria- Hungary declared war on Serbia. World War I had begun.

13 Schlieffen Plan

14 Both sides originally believed that the Great War would be over quickly. Both sides originally believed that the Great War would be over quickly. In Germany, this belief was based on a long established war strategy called the Schlieffen Plan. In Germany, this belief was based on a long established war strategy called the Schlieffen Plan. Start with a German army invading Belgium(avoiding eastern French Forts) to reach Paris. The German generals were so confident of success that Kaiser Wilhelm II proclaimed that he would have "Paris for lunch, St. Petersburg for dinner." The German generals were so confident of success that Kaiser Wilhelm II proclaimed that he would have "Paris for lunch, St. Petersburg for dinner." The plan required with no interruptions in the timetable -- its first objective was to. The German armies would then shift their focus to the eastern front and defeat the Russians before they were fully prepared to fight. The plan required precise timing, with no interruptions in the timetable -- its first objective was to capture Paris in precisely 42 days, and force the French to surrender. The German armies would then shift their focus to the eastern front and defeat the Russians before they were fully prepared to fight. It started quickly on Aug. 2, 1914 with Germany invading Luxembourg and Belgium, but the British, French and Russians mobilized quicker than expected. It started quickly on Aug. 2, 1914 with Germany invading Luxembourg and Belgium, but the British, French and Russians mobilized quicker than expected.

15 Outbreak of War Define- What is nationalism? Define- What is nationalism? Identify Cause and Effect- Why did other countries join the fight between Austria-Hungary and Serbia? Identify Cause and Effect- Why did other countries join the fight between Austria-Hungary and Serbia? Analyze- How had European Nations prepared for war? Analyze- How had European Nations prepared for war?

16 Main Idea 2: European nations suffered massive casualties in the war’s early battles. MarneSeptember 1914 The French army blocked the German advance at the Marne River, east of Paris, in September –First Battle of Marne –The First Battle of Marne marked the first major battle of the war. – western front –French and German forces faced each other along a long battle line known as the western front. Russian and German armies struggled back and forth on the eastern front. stalemate The war became a stalemate– a situation in which neither side can win a decisive victory. Clear that this war would be longer than expected.

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18 The First Battle of the Marne The Aftermath French paid a heavy price The French paid a heavy price, as countless red- coated French troops had fallen in the battle. Despite the loss of life, it helped the Allies by giving Russia more time to mobilize for war. Russia mobilized, Eastern Front Once Russia mobilized, Germany had to pull some of its troops out of France and send them to fight Russia on the Eastern Front, which stretched from the Black Sea to the Baltic Sea. 25 miles from Paris.The German army quickly advanced through northern France and after only one month of fighting were barely 25 miles from Paris. The French, however, would not give up.The French, however, would not give up. The Battle The French launched a counterattack along the Marne River east of Paris on September 7, This battle became known as the First Battle of the Marne. 2 million men 2 million men fought on a battle-front that stretched 125 miles. After five days and 250,000 deaths, 600 taxicabs After five days and 250,000 deaths, the French had rallied and pushed the Germans back some 40 miles. 600 taxicabs were even used to get men to the front.

19 Stalemate Poison gas attack, Flanders, Belgium

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21 The War Reaches a Stalemate French and German soldiers dug trenches The First Battle of the Marne ended in a stalemate, and both French and German soldiers dug trenches, or deep ditches, to defend their positions and seek shelter from enemy fire. two massive systems of trenches stretched 400 miles Western Front By late 1914, two massive systems of trenches stretched 400 miles across Western Europe, and the battle lines known as the Western Front extended from Switzerland to the North Sea. Trench warfare, or fighting from trenches, was an old strategy Trench warfare, or fighting from trenches, was an old strategy that had been used in Africa, Asia, and the Americas. This trench warfare, however, was different because of its scale. – Soldiers lived in trenches – Soldiers lived in trenches, surrounded by machine-gun fire, flying grenades, and exploding artillery shells. – Opposing forces had machine guns – Opposing forces had machine guns pointed at enemy trenches at all times, firing whenever a helmet or rifle appeared over the top. – no-man’s-land,” – Thousands of men that ran into the area between the trenches, known as “no-man’s-land,” were chopped down by enemy fire. stalemate, or deadlock Neither the Allies nor the Germans were able to make significant advances, creating a stalemate, or deadlock.

22 Technology of War Land Air Sea protection of deep ditches Trench warfare, defending a position by fighting from the protection of deep ditches, helped make the war long and deadly. –Cold, wet, and muddy –Disease ran rampant New technologies made land warfare even more deadly –Machine guns –Poison gases –Tanks Airplanes Airplanes used in large-scale battle for the first time –Fired down on soldiers in the trenches –Gathered information on enemy locations dogfights” –Battled each other in the air in “dogfights” Fighting in the Atlantic Ocean and the North Sea Naval blockades and mines Used Naval blockades and mines to block supply lines U-boats, German submarines U-boats, German submarines, launched torpedoes against Allied supply ships.

23 Poisonous Gas weaponGerman military scientists experimented with gas as a weapon. wind changes could backfire the gasGas in battle was risky: Soldiers didn’t know how much to use, and wind changes could backfire the gas. Then Germans threw canisters of gas into the Allies’ trenches. British and French forces began using it tooMany regretted using gas, but British and French forces began using it too, to keep things even. Tanks gas masksWhen soldiers began to carry gas masks, they still faced a stalemate. armored tanksBritish forces soon developed armored tanks to move into no- man’s-land. tanks had limited successThese tanks had limited success because many got stuck in the mud. artillery fireGermans soon found ways to destroy the tanks with artillery fire. New Weapons of War Airplanes map and to attack trenchesBoth sides used planes to map and to attack trenches from above. Planes first dropped bricks and heavy objects on enemy troops. mounted guns and bombs on planesSoon they mounted guns and bombs on planes. dogfightsSkilled pilots sought in air battles called dogfights. German Red Baron downed 80 Allied planesThe German Red Baron downed 80 Allied planes, until he was shot down.

24 A New Kind of Warfare Word of Germany’s invasion of Belgium quickly spread to France and other European nations. French troops mobilized French troops mobilized to meet approaching German divisions. – bright red coats and heavy brass helmets – They looked much as French soldiers did over 40 years earlier, wearing bright red coats and heavy brass helmets. – German troops dressed in gray uniforms – The German troops dressed in gray uniforms that worked as camouflage on the battlefield. French war strategy had not changed French war strategy had not changed much since the 1800s. – French soldiers marched row by row – French soldiers marched row by row onto the battlefield, with bayonets mounted to their field rifles, preparing for close combat with the Germans. – Germans, however, had many machine guns – The Germans, however, had many machine guns, and mowed down some 15,000 French troops per day in early battle. – – A well-trained German machine-gun team could set up equipment in four seconds, and each machine gun matched the firepower of 50 to 100 French rifles. Europeans wrongly thought these technological advances would make the war short Many Europeans wrongly thought these technological advances would make the war short and that France would be defeated in two months.

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27 Trenches

28 Trenches The Allies used four "types" of trenches. The Allies used four "types" of trenches. – The first, the front-line trench – support trench, – reserve trench – communication trenches

29 Life in the Trenches Death Death Rat Infestation Rat Infestation Frogs, Lice and Worse Frogs, Lice and Worse The Trench Cycle The Trench Cycle the Smell the Smell

30 Trenches- Suffering Trench Foot Trench Foot Trench Mouth Trench Mouth Trench Fever Trench Fever

31 Trenches- Self Inflicted wounds + Shell Shock

32 Early Battles of the War Make Inferences- What effect did having fronts in the west, north and east have on the German and Russian Armies? Make Inferences- What effect did having fronts in the west, north and east have on the German and Russian Armies? Evaluate- What is a possible reason that soldiers felt safe in the trenches at the onset of the war? Evaluate- What is a possible reason that soldiers felt safe in the trenches at the onset of the war? Describe- What was living in a trench like? Describe- What was living in a trench like? Identify Cause and Effect- The arrival of tanks ended what type of fighting technique? Identify Cause and Effect- The arrival of tanks ended what type of fighting technique?

33 Early Battles of the War Explain- How did the Germans respond to the British port blockade? Explain- How did the Germans respond to the British port blockade? Predict- What do you think neutral countries might do after German U-boats attacked their ships? Predict- What do you think neutral countries might do after German U-boats attacked their ships?

34 Total War and Slaughter

35 World War I Casualties Allies Belgium 45,550 Belgium 45,550 British Empire 942,135 British Empire 942,135 France 1,368,000 France 1,368,000 Greece 23,098 Greece 23,098 Italy 680,000 Italy 680,000 Japan 1,344 Japan 1,344 Montenegro 3,000 Montenegro 3,000 Portugal 8,145 Portugal 8,145 Romania 300,000 Romania 300,000 Russia 1,700,000 Russia 1,700,000 Serbia 45,000 Serbia 45,000 United States 116,516 United States 116,516 Central Powers Austria-Hungary 1,200,000 Austria-Hungary 1,200,000 Bulgaria 87,495 Bulgaria 87,495 Germany 1,935,000 Germany 1,935,000 Ottoman Empire 725,000 Ottoman Empire 725,000 Total Casualties Total Casualties 65 million mobilized both sides 65 million mobilized both sides 8.5 million killed 8.5 million killed 21 million wounded 21 million wounded 7.7 million POW’s and missing 7.7 million POW’s and missing 37million total casualties 37million total casualties 57% of all men mobilized 57% of all men mobilized

36 Over the Top - An Interactive Adventure 15 min or the entire period. Over The Top Over The Top Over The Top Over The Top

37 Weapons of World War I If there is time

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39 Rifles

40 Rifles, Bayonets and Hand guns There was undeniably psychological value to the infantry in carrying a bayonet, even if in practice it was seldom used. Bayonets continued to be commonly issued in the Second World War.

41 Hand guns Colt 45 German Luger French

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43 Machine Gun

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46 Poison Gas CountryCasualties Deaths CountryCasualties Deaths Austria-Hungary 100,000 3,000 Austria-Hungary 100,000 3,000 British Empire 88,706 8,109 British Empire 88,706 8,109 France 190,000 8,000 France 190,000 8,000 Germany 200,000 9,000 Germany 200,000 9,000 Italy 60,000 4,627 Italy 60,000 4,627 Russia 419,340 56,000 Russia 419,340 56,000 USA 72,807 1,462 USA 72,807 1,462 Others 10,000 1,000 Others 10,000 1,000

47 Poison Gas

48 Mustard Gas Mustard Gas

49 Poison Gas- Mustard Gas effects

50 Tanks

51 Tanks

52 Flame-throwers During the war the Germans launched in excess of 650 flame-thrower attacks; no numbers exist for British or French attacks.

53 Grenades

54 Mortars and Artillery

55 Blimps The Zeppelin The Zeppelin

56 Airplanes ‘ dogfights’ ‘ dogfights’ interrupter equipment interrupter equipment interrupter equipment interrupter equipment

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58 Poison Gas Poison Gas


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