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World War I 1914-1919

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Presentation on theme: "World War I 1914-1919"— Presentation transcript:

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2 World War I

3 Causes of WWI- M.A.I.N MILITARISM ALLIANCES IMPERIALISM NATIONALISM

4 Nationalism- Germany & France Germany was feeling strong  military and new industrial growth France wanted to regain power as was before Congress of Vienna Regain pride/territory lost during Franco-Prussian War in 1870

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7 Austria-Hungary Empire

8 Nationalism- Eastern Europe Russia- supported nationalism called Pan- Slavism Russia  defend all Slavs (Serbia) Threatened Austria-Hungary and Ottoman Empires “POWDER KEG OF EUROPE”

9 Militarism- Glorification of Military Part of Social Darwinism Increase in size of armies and navies Germany V. Britain expanded funding for navies (Why Britain?)

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11 Standing Armies in Europe 1914

12 Alliances- Central Vs. Allies Two Big Alliances: 1.Triple Alliance (1882) = Germany, Italy, and Austria-Hungary (Ottoman) 2.Triple Entente (1904) = France, Russia, and Britain (Japan)

13 Italy’s Irredenta

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15 Assassination- Immediate Cause Archduke Francis Ferdinand of Austria- Hungary was killed in Bosnia (nephew of Emperor) Who/Why? Serbian (Slavs) nationalists wanted self-rule and end foreign government rchduke_ferdinand.gif

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18 Chain Reaction Austria-Hungary got Germany’s support (declared war on Serbia) Serbia got help from Russia (Germany declared war on Russia) Russia asked for help from France (Germany declared war on France) Italy and Britain remain neutral at first

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21 The “Great War” “One out of every four men who went out to the World War did not come back again”

22 A Multi-Front War German – von- Schleifen Plan Will it work?

23 The Western Front

24 Russia won small victories at first  led Germany to move troops from the west to the east Stalemate  deadlock

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26 Trench Warfare Dug out trenches Hot summers, cold winters “No man’s land”  in between enemy trenches medialib/images/div0093.jpeg

27 Trench Warfare

28 Trench Warfare

29 “No Man’s Land”

30 Verdun – February, 1916 e German offensive. e Each side had 500,000 casualties. e German offensive. e Each side had 500,000 casualties.

31 The Somme – July, 1916 e 60,000 British soldiers killed in one day. e Over 1,000,000 killed in 5 months. e 60,000 British soldiers killed in one day. e Over 1,000,000 killed in 5 months.

32 War Is HELL !!

33 Sacrifices in War

34 Krupp’s “Big Bertha” Gun

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36 Battles- Takes a Toll attacks to break the stalemate 11 month struggle that cost ½ million deaths on both sides (Verdun) 1 million killed at Somme River with no side gaining an advantage %20Chess%20board%20by%20Joe%20Wallis%20- % jpg

37 The Eastern Front

38 The Gallipoli Disaster, 1915

39 Turkish Cavalry in Palestine

40 T. E. Lawrence & the “Arab Revolt”,

41 T. E. Lawrence & Prince Faisal at Versailles,

42 The Tsar with General Brusilov

43 The “Colonial” Fronts

44 Sikh British Soldiers in India

45 Fighting in Africa British Sikh Mounstain Gunner Black Soldiers in the German Schutztruppen [German E. Africa]

46 Fighting in Africa 3 rd British Battalion, Nigerian Brigade

47 Fighting in Salonika, Greece French colonial marine infantry from Cochin, China

48 New Technology 1.Machine guns 2.Poison gas/gas masks (wind became problem) 3.Armored tank 4.Aircraft (zeppelins) 5. German U-Boats 6.Convoys

49 Machine Guns

50 Poison Gas

51 Armored Tank

52 Aircraft

53 U-Boats %2Fimages%3Fp%3DWWI%2Bu-boats%26ei%3DUTF-8%26fr%3Dyfp-t- 501%26x%3Dwrt%26js%3D1%26ni%3D18&w=855&h=623&imgurl=www.dutchsubmarines.com%2Fboats%2Fi mages%2Fsubmarines%2Fboat_o7_ozd_baracks_den_helder_wwi.jpg&rurl=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.dutchsubmar ines.com%2Fboats%2Fboat_o7.htm&size=70.4kB&name=boat_o7_ozd_baracks_den_helder_wwi.jpg&p=WWI+ u-boats&type=jpeg&no=10&tt=38&oid=d968a776b4da5bbe&ei=UTF-8

54 Total War Using a nation’s entire resources into the war struggle Conscription- “draft” Raised taxes and rationed food supplies

55 Propaganda Controlling public perspective Censored the press Propaganda- spreading of ideas to promote a cause or to damage an opposing cause Tales of atrocities

56 posters/images/pp_uk_04.jpg

57 Australian Poster

58 American Poster

59 Financing the War

60 Women Took over men’s jobs Nurses Helped lead to women’s suffrage

61 Russian Revolution Russians left the war for revolution at home Overthrew the Russian monarchy Signed the Brest- Litovsk Treaty with Germany (pulled out of war) ution.db_psc-tvl-path-baseX5fmainimg-u-5077-z-f.jpg

62 America Joins the Allies

63 U.S. Enters War, 1917 Sinking of Lusitania in 1915 (128 Americans) Most Americans supported the allies for cultural reasons Zimmerman NoteZimmerman Note (1917)- German note that was intercepted on route to Mexico music/sinking-lusitania.jpg

64 The Sinking of the Lusitania

65 The Zimmerman Telegram

66 The Yanks Are Coming! The Yanks Are Coming!

67 Americans in the Trenches

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69 Wilson- Fourteen Points List of terms for resolving the war and future wars Freedom of seas, free trade, reduction of arms, and end to secret treaties, est. fair peace, est. League of Nations Armistice- 11/11 at 11 AM in 1918  ended WWI

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71 The Effects of War 8.5 – 9 million people died Over 17 million were wounded Pandemic (1918)- flu that killed 20 million

72 9,000,000 Dead 9,000,000 Dead

73 Effects of War Europe was destroyed (infrastructure) Pay of national debt and rebuilding was a problem ReparationsReparations- payments for war damage (Germany)

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75 Effects of War Governments collapsed: 1.Russia 2.Germany 3.Austria-Hungary 4.Ottoman Empire

76 Treaty of Versailles (B.R.A.T.) Germany had to take full Blame for war Had to pay Reparations (leads to rise of Hitler) $30 billion Reduced Army and took away German Territory

77 Map Changes Map Changes

78 Treaty of Brest- Litovsk strips Russia of land New nations are formed in Eastern Europe Not all ethnic groups are satisfied

79 Deaths and Responsibilities

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81 11 a.m., November 11, 1918

82 The Somme American Cemetary, France 116,516 Americans Died

83 World War I Casualties

84 Turkish Genocide Against Armenians A Portent of Future Horrors to Come!

85 Turkish Genocide Against Armenians Turkish Genocide of Armenians ( ) Districts & Vilayets of Western Armenia in Turkey Erzerum215,0001,500 Van197, Kharbert204,00035,000 Diarbekir124,0003,000 Bitlis220,00056,000 Sivas225,00016,800 Other Armenian-populated Sites in Turkey Western Anatolia371,80027,000 Cilicia and Northern Syria309,00070,000 European Turkey194,000163,000 Trapizond District73,39015,000 Total 2,133,190387,800


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