2 Outline Introduction Si Photodetector in 770 ~ 850 nm Range IR Schottky barrier photodetector
3 Introduction Essentially - p-n diode under the reverse bias Operate in the photoconductive modeMain usage - for the conversion of the optical signalworks at µm (peak responsivity at 0.8 µm).Si Peak R = 0.5 A/W
4 Si Photodetector in 770 ~ 850 nm Range Optical communication range.Absorption length for Si: 10 ~ 15 mm.Requirements: High responsivity and Fast?pn, pin and msm.nWhy 770 ~ 850 nm?J = Jdrfit + JdiffpDepletion region
5 Interdigitated Electrode Interdigitated electrodes are often used to increase the active region area while optimizing the electric fields in the carrier collection region.Electrode can either be P+/N+ or just metal.
6 Silicon Lateral Trench Photodetector Finger space = 3.3 mmTrench depth = 8 mmFinger size = 0.35 mmFor l=845 nm,BW=1.5 GHz, Responsivity = 0.47 A/W at 5VBSGMin Yang, Kern Rim, Dennis L. Rogers, et al., IEEE ELECTRON DEVICE LETTERS, VOL. 23, NO. 7, JULY 2002
7 MSM Photodetector by Trench Formation For l = 790 nm, BW = 2.2 GHz, Responsivity = VJacob Y. L. Ho and K. S. Wong, IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, 8(8), 1996
8 Resonant-Cavity-Enhanced High-Speed Si Photodetector Three pair of quarter wavelength SiO2 and polysilicon at bottom (LPCVD).Etched seed window.SiO2 Side-wall to prevent defects at the edge of poly.RPCVD Si.Two pairs of ZnSe-MgF on top (evaporated).SEG, processJ. D. Schaub, R. Li, C. L. Schow, J. C. Campbell, G. W. Neudeck, and J. Denton,IEEE PHOTONICS TECHNOLOGY LETTERS, VOL. 11, NO. 12, DECEMBER 1999
9 Photodetector on SOIThin active layer, and small finger space result in high speed.Device with 100nm active layer and 100nm finger space was made. l=780 nm BW=140 GHz, responsivity=5.7 5V.SiliconSilicon dioxideM. Y. Liu, E. Chen, and S. Y. Chou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65 (7), 15 August 1994
10 IR Schottky Barrier (SB) Photodetector 300,000 PtSi/p-Si Schottky barrier IR detector focal plane arrays have been developed and used on Air Force B-52
11 IR Schottky Barrier Photodetector Internal PhotoemissionIntrinsic Mechanism
12 IssuesHigh dark current, has to operate at low temperature (40 ~ 80 K).Low quantum efficiency (QE).High lC gives high QE. In order to expand the spectrum, efforts were made to decrease the barrier height.
13 Fowler Plot The dark current is thermionic limited. It is given by: A** is Richardson constantBy plotting J0/T2 vs 1/T, qfB can be obtained from the slope.
14 PtSi/p-Si Schottky Barrier Second lowest barrier height (0.22eV). More than IrSi (0.16eV).Low expense.Compatible with standard IC process.Stable.Good uniformity over large area.Good growth and etching selectivity.Aqua regia. Ir Iridium
15 PtSi Schottky-Barrier Infrared Focal Plane Arrays How it works? 1040 by 1040, 20 by 20 mmMasafumi Kimata, Tatsuo Ozaki, Natsuro Tsubouchi and Sho Ito, Proceeding of SPIE, 1998
16 SBD with a shallow P+ layer PtSi/p-Si, qFB = 0.22 eV, lc = 5.6 mm. (M. Kimata, M. Denda et. al, Inter. J. of Infrared and millimeter waves, 6(10), 1985)PtSi/p+ (100 ~ 300 nm)/p-Si, qFB < 0.22 eV, with hole tunneling, lc = 7 mm. (CY Wei, W. Trantraporn, W. Katz and G. Smith, 93, 1981)PtSi/p+ (1nm)/p-Si, qFB = eV, lc = 22 mm. (TL Lin, JS Park et. al, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(25), 1993)TL Lin, JS Park et al.Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(25), 1993
17 Porous Silicon (PS) Schottky Barrier Detector The modification was made just to make the PtSi on top of the PS in stead of Si. Pt was deposited by electrodepositionThe cut-off wavelength of 7 mm was reported.QE ~ 7 mmRandom orientation of the junctions increase the number of holes that can be injected into Si.Why?Farshid Raissi and Mansoor Mohtashami Far, IEEE Sensors Journal, 2 (5) 2002