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1914- 1918: The World at War 1914- 1918: The World at War By: Ms. Susan M. Pojer Horace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY.

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Presentation on theme: "1914- 1918: The World at War 1914- 1918: The World at War By: Ms. Susan M. Pojer Horace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY."— Presentation transcript:


2 1914- 1918: The World at War 1914- 1918: The World at War By: Ms. Susan M. Pojer Horace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY

3 Causes of the War

4 What caused World War I?  Nationalism  Militarism  Imperialism  Alliances

5 What alliances divided Europe in 1914?  Triple Entente (Allies) – France, Britain, Russia  Triple Alliance (Central Powers) – Germany, Austria-Hungry, Italy

6 1. The Alliance System Triple Entente: Triple Alliance:

7 Two Armed Camps! Allied Powers: Central Powers:

8 The Major Players: 1914-17 Nicholas II [Rus] George V [Br] Pres. Poincare [Fr] Allied Powers: Franz Josef [A-H] Wilhelm II [Ger] Victor Emmanuel II [It] Central Powers: Enver Pasha [Turkey]


10 2. Militarism & Arms Race 187018801890190019101914 94130154268289398 Total Defense Expenditures for the Great Powers [Ger., A-H, It., Fr., Br., Rus.] in millions of £s. 1910-1914 Increase in Defense Expenditures France10% Britain13% Russia39% Germany73%

11 3. Economic & Imperial Rivalries

12 4. Aggressive Nationalism

13 What diplomatic crises sparked the war?  Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand  Austria declared war on Serbia  Due to extensive alliances numerous other countries were brought into the war (domino-like effect)

14 The “Spark”

15 Archduke Franz Ferdinand & His Family

16 The Assassination: Sarajevo

17 The Assassin: Gavrilo Princip Gavrilo Princip

18 Who’s To Blame?

19 What characteristics describe trench warfare during WWI?  Double parallel system of trenches that are divided by no man’s land  Rat infested, muddy = soldiers developing illnesses  Trenches protected by barbed wire & machine guns

20 Trench Warfare Trench Warfare

21 Trench Warfare “No Man’s Land”

22 What motivated those who opposed America entering the war?  Pacifists – believed war was evil  Socialists – believed war was a capitalist & imperialist struggle  Many Americans did not believe US should be involved in a war in Europe\  Did not won’t their sons to experience horrors

23 What motivated those who favored the US entering the war?  Immigrants had ties to former homelands  Economic reasons

24 What factors increased American sympathy for the Allies?  Stronger Economic ties to Allies  Spread of British Propaganda that told stories of German atrocities (later proved false)

25 Why did the German threat to sink all ships …?  Because Germany was making an act of aggression against the US and the US was technically a neutral country  Sinking of the Lusitania had already turned public opinion in the US against Germany

26 What did the Zimmerman note reveal about Germany’s plans?  Showed Germany was planning an alliance with Mexico if the US declared war

27 America Joins the Allies

28 The Sinking of the Lusitania

29 The Zimmerman Telegram

30 11. How did the arrival of new American troops affect the spirit of Allied troops?  Troops brought fresh enthusiasm

31 12. Who led the American troops in Europe?  General John J. Pershing

32 The Yanks Are Coming! The Yanks Are Coming!

33 Americans in the Trenches

34 13. What new weapons were used during WWI?  Machine guns  Airplanes/Airships  Poison Gas  Tanks

35 The War of the Industrial Revolution: New Technology

36 French Renault Tank

37 British Tank at Ypres

38 U-Boats

39 10. What is the significance of the convoy system?  Provided protection for US ships  Cut shipping losses in half by 1917

40 Allied Ships Sunk by U-Boats

41 The Airplane “Squadron Over the Brenta” Max Edler von Poosch, 1917

42 Curtis-Martin U. S. Aircraft Plant

43 Looking for the “Red Baron?”

44 The Zeppelin

45 Flame Throwers Grenade Launchers

46 Poison Gas Machine Gun

47 14. How many people died during WWI?  22 million  Note: 20 million more were wounded  Note: 10 million became refugees  Note: war cost about $338 billion

48 World War I Casualties

49 15. How did the war affect the U.S. economy?  Wages rose  Prices rose  Government gained more control  Big businesses benefited  Labor unions were hurt

50 16. How did the government finance the war?  Raised about 1/3 through taxes  2/3 through bonds (loans)

51 17. How did the government build support for the war?  Propaganda agency  Posters, movies, speeches, booklets

52 18. What groups were the main targets of anti-immigrant hysteria during the war?  German immigrants  Austrian-Hungarian immigrants  Americans of German descent

53 19. How did the Espionage & Sedition Acts affect civil liberties ?  Put limits on right to free speech  Prosecuted anyone accused on committing an anti-war activity

54 20. What was the Great Migration?  A large scale movement of hundreds of thousands of Southern blacks to cities in the North

55 21. What new opportunities did the war offer to women?  moved into jobs that had been previously only held by men  Railroad workers, cooks, bricklayers, etc.  Volunteers in war support positions

56 22. What were the effects of the worldwide flu epidemic?  Devastated economies  Led to the shutdown of major industries  Killed 500,000 Americans  Killed ~30 million worldwide  More than a quarter of soldiers were infected

57 23. What were Wilson’s Fourteen Points?  Plan for peace  Addressed all of the issues that caused the war  Sought to end militarism, imperialism  Improve trade, lower tariffs  Creation of an international organization to address diplomatic crises (League of Nations)

58 24. Why did the Allies reject Wilson’s Peace Plan?  Revenge against Germany  Insure that Germany would not be able to be in a position of power for a long time

59 25. What were the main provisions of the Treaty of Versailles?  Established 9 new nations  Shifted boundaries of other nations  Barred Germany from maintaining a standing army  Returned Alsace-Lorraine to France  Germany had to pay $33 billion to Allies  War guilt clause for Germany

60 26. What were some of the weaknesses of the treaty?  War-guilt clause  Huge reparations  Stripping of German colonial possessions  Former Russia lost more territory than Germany  Ignored claims of colonized for freedom

61 27. How did Americans react to the treaty?  Major opposition  Too harsh  Hurt the economy of Europe & US  Traded old colonial for new colonial govt’s  League threatened US policy of isolationism

62 28. Why did Americans disagree over the League?  Interfered with US policy of isolationism  Worried about joint provision  Believed it interfered with US constitution

63 29. Why did Germany object to the Treaty?  They were not involved in the treaty negotiations  One sided reparations

64 30. How did the war effect Germany?  Devastated the economy  Lost millions of lives  Destruction of many cities and farmland

65 31. How did the war affect the US’s power & prestige in the world?  Strengthened the US military  Strengthened its political power  Accelerated US emergence as a major industrial power

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