Chapter 24, Section 1: War in Europe Main Idea: When World War I erupted in 1914, the United States remained neutral.
A. Tensions in Europe l Nationalism -pride in one’s country-pitted nation against nation and created rivalries (mistrust & hatred) l Imperialism - empire building -European nations competed for colonies in Africa, Asia, etc. (new markets & raw materials) l Militarism -building up armed forces to prepare for war-created competition & tension
1910-1914 Increase in Defense Expenditures France10% Britain13% Russia39% Germany73% 187018801890190019101914 94130154268289398 Causes of World War I - Militarism £s Total Defense Expenditures for the Great Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy, France, Britain, Russia) in millions of £s (British pounds)
B. Rival AlliancesRival Alliances l Countries in Europe formed alliances to support one another in case of attack. This meant that a minor incident could spark a major war l Triple Alliance: Germany, Italy & Austria-Hungary l Triple Entente: France, Britain & Russia
The Alliance System Triple Entente: Triple Alliance:
C. The Balkans in Crisis l Archduke Franz Ferdinand (Austria -Hungary) and his wife are assassinated by Serbian nationalist Gavrilo Princip Archduke Franz Ferdinand l This causes a chain reaction of war declarations because of alliances (a minor incident caused a major war)(a minor incident caused a major war) l This is the “spark” that ignites the “powder keg”
Causes of World War ICauses of World War I - M ilitarism M ilitarism – building up strong military forces to prepare for war A lliancesA lliances - agreements between nations to aid and protect one another N ationalismN ationalism – pride in or devotion to one’s country I mperialism I mperialism – when one country takes over another economically & politically A ssassinationA ssassination – murder of Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand MANIAMANIA The Point of No Return: The Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand Austria blamed Serbia for Ferdinand’s death and declared war on Serbia. Germany pledged their support for Austria -Hungary. (Pan-German nationalism) Russia pledged their support for Serbia. (Pan-Slavic nationalism) Germany declares war on Russia. France pledges their support for Russia. Germany declares war on France. Germany invades Belgium on the way to France. Great Britain supports Belgium and declares war on Germany.
D. The “Great War” BeginsThe “Great War” Begins l Central Powers - Germany, Austria-Hungary,& Ottoman Empire (Turkey) –Bulgaria joins later l Allied Powers -France, Britain, & Russia (Italy & 20 others join later) l Triple Alliance becomes Central Powers, Triple Entente becomes Allied Powers l Germany’s plan was to defeat France quickly, then concentrate on Russia Allied Powers
Two Armed Camps! Allied Powers: Central Powers: World War I Begins Nationalism, Imperialism, Militarism Rival Alliances in Europe Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand
E. Trench Warfare l Both sides dug in,creating miles of trenches protected by mines & barbed wire (p.652)trenches l This caused a stalemate for 3 years l No Man’s Land-area between trenches l Over the Top-attacks on the enemy across no man’s land (rarely successful) Over the Top l Neither side gained much territory, but both sides lost many lives
Trench WarfareTrench Warfare – type of fighting during WWI in which both sides dug trenches protected by mines & barbed wire Trench Warfare Cross-section of a front-line trench
French soldiers firing over their own dead All Quiet on the Western Front – trench warfare (9:27) An aerial photograph of the opposing trenches and no-man's land in Artois, France, 1917. German trenches are at the right and bottom, British trenches are at the top left. The vertical line to the left of centre indicates the course of a pre-war road.
Trench Rats "The rats were huge. They were so big they would eat a wounded man if he couldn't defend himself." "I saw some rats running from under the dead men's greatcoats, enormous rats, fat with human flesh. My heart pounded as we edged towards one of the bodies. His helmet had rolled off. The man displayed a grimacing face, stripped of flesh; the skull bare, the eyes devoured and from the yawning mouth leapt a rat." Many men killed in the trenches were buried almost where they fell. These corpses, as well as food scraps that littered trenches, attracted rats. Quotes from soldiers fighting in the trenches: 'Gassed'. Painting by John Singer Sargent, 1918/1919.
Officers walking through a flooded communication trench. A photograph of a man suffering from trench foot.
F. American Neutrality l Officially, America was neutral, but public opinion was divided (most favored Allies) l Most German, Austrian, Irish and Jewish Americans favored the Central Powers l The war caused the American economy to boom (trade-mostly w/ Allies) l Propaganda -spreading ideas to convince someone to support your cause (posters,etc)
· However, we traded food, weapons, oil, steel, and other goods far more with the Allied Powers than with the Central Powers. American Neutrality · Officially, the U.S. was a neutral country.
G. Freedom of the Seas l Germany used U-boats (subs) to attack Allied & neutral ships (trading w/ Allies) l They had warned the U.S. to keep their ships out of restricted areas, but U.S. refused l Germany sunk the Lusitania, a British passenger ship, killing 1200 people (128 American)
· However, Britain and Germany set up blockades around the British and German coasts. Freedom of the Seas · The U.S., as a neutral nation, claimed the right to trade with either side in the war.
· German submarines, called U-boats, torpedoed enemy ships and neutral ships trading with the enemy.U-boats