Presentation on theme: "Intro to Oceanography. How does it differ from Marine Biology? Study of the ocean, its surroundings, and life within it. Marine bio studies marine organisms’"— Presentation transcript:
Intro to Oceanography
How does it differ from Marine Biology? Study of the ocean, its surroundings, and life within it. Marine bio studies marine organisms’ anatomy, physiology, behavior; more individualistic.
1.Pacific 2.Atlantic 3.Indian 4.Arctic 5.Southern or Antarctic Ocean The five principal oceans
Indian Southern or Antarctic Artic Pacific Atlantic
OceanArea (square miles)Average Depth (ft)Deepest depth (ft) Pacific Ocean 64,186,00015,215Mariana Trench, 36,200 ft deep Atlantic Ocean 33,420,00012,881Puerto Rico Trench, 28,231 ft deep Indian Ocean 28,350,00013,002Java Trench, 25,344 ft deep Southern Ocean 7,848,300 sq. miles ( million sq km ) 13, ,400 ft deep (4,000 to 5,000 meters) the southern end of the South Sandwich Trench, 23,736 ft (7,235 m) deep Arctic Ocean 5,106,0003,953Eurasia Basin, 17,881 ft deep Comparison of Oceans Size
The Seven Seas?
Physical Oceanography How and why ocean currents flow, air-sea interactions such as the generation of waves by wind.
Chemical Oceanography Composition of sea water and the processing controlling and altering its composition, including marine pollution
Organisms that live in the ocean and their relationship to the environment Biological Oceanography
Study of rock structure in the ocean basin, properties of rocks such as magnetism, occurrence of earthquakes. Geological Oceanography
Design and installation of oceanographic instrumentation and vehicles Ocean Engineering
Millions of Years Before Present Age of the ocean basin: 200 my old
It formally began in the 1800’s. Previously, it was thought that the deep ocean had no life below 550 m (Edward Forbes- Azoic Theory).
Prior to then: 1500 B.C., Phoenicians were skilled sailors and traded goods
Migration Routes of Polynesia
An early stick chart from Micronesia shows the waves and currents around the islands which are represented by shells.
Voyage of Columbus (1492) and Magellan (1519)
Cook (1700’s)- sailed twice around the world 1 st European to visit Hawaii Cook
Humboldt (1800’s)- German naturalist, contributions in geophysics, meteorology, and oceanography
Voyage of the HMS Beagle Darwin (1831): Subsidence theory of coral reef formation (atolls) & origin of species
Ben Franklin (1770’s)- mapped the Gulf Stream
collected thousands of biological and sea bottom samples traveled in every ocean except arctic cruise directed by Charles Wyville Thompson 362 stations, 715 new genera, 5000 new species discovered Mariana Trench and Mindarniad (34,000 ft deep) Voyage of the HMS Challenger ( )
HMS Challenger's Chemical Laboratory Deep sea Collections
Late 19 th century – early 20 th century: Founding a number of important marine laboratories, including coastal labs and open ocean labs. Founded 1903 Founded
Meteor Expedition (1925)- introduced modern optical and electronic equipment (echo sounder) Recent:
Glomar Challenger (1968)- drilling for deep sea sediments
Rachel Louise Carson ( ) Marine biologist at U.S. Bureau of Fisheries & Fish & Wildlife Service
Jacque Cousteau ( ) Navy officer, explorer, film maker, inventor of scuba (1947) "From birth, man carries the weight of gravity on his shoulders. He is bolted to the earth. But man has only to sink beneath the surface and he is free.”
Bob Ballard (1942-) Navy officer, explorer, film maker
Inquiry 1.The 4 major disciplines of oceanography are _____. 2. The tallest mtn in the world is____. 3.The ave. depth of the ocean is ____. 4.What are modern and ancient ways to navigate? 5.Who discovered the Marianas trench and how was it done? 6.Who traveled to it’s depths? 7.What was Rachael Carson known for?