12 Aerial view of aTrench network.The spots areartillery hits.Note the 3 linesystem: Front linetrench, supporttrench, and reservetrench
13 Another view of the trench setup includes observation posts and dummy trenches
14 Antibiotics had not yet been discovered and medical practices were still antiquated so the filthy conditions of the trench greatly increased the chances that wounds would become infected. Many soldiers receiving minor wounds to arms or legs died, not from the wound, but from infection. Only 1 in 100 wounded in the abdomen survived.
15 “Trench warfare created a living environment for the men that was harsh, stagnant and extremely dangerous. Not only were trenches constantly under threat of attack from shells or other weapons, but there were also many health risks that developed into large-scale problems for medical personnel. Apart from the inescapable cold during the winters in France, trenches were often completely waterlogged and muddy, and crawling with lice and rats.”
16 The ImmortalsI killed them, but they would not die. Yea! all the day and all the night For them I could not rest nor sleep, Nor guard from them nor hide in flight. Then in my agony I turned And made my hands red in gore. In vain - for faster than I slew They rose more cruel than before. I killed and killed with slaughter mad; I killed till all my strength was gone. And still they rose to torture me, For Devils only die in fun. I used to think the Devil hid In women's smiles and wine's carouse. I called him Satan, Balzebub. But now I call him, dirty louse. Isaac Rosenberg, 1917
17 “As in many other wars, World War I's greatest killer was disease “As in many other wars, World War I's greatest killer was disease. Sanitary conditions in the trenches were quite poor, and common infections included dysentery, typhus, and cholera. Many soldiers suffered from parasites and related infections. Poor hygiene also led to conditions such as trench mouth and trench foot. Another common killer was exposure, since the temperature within a trench in the winter could easily fall below zero degrees Celsius. (32 F)”
18 A case of trench foot: These feet were beyond saving
20 Analysis of Trench Warfare Why might 'futile' be a good description of trench warfare?Beside the danger of being shot or hit by artillery fire what other problems did the soldiers face in the trenches?By the beginning of WWII trench warfare was no longer used. Why do you think this happened?