Definition of Home/Residence 3 The home/residence is a primary environment of greatest importance. It is a place where many important human needs are satisfied (e.g., eating, sleeping, loving, studying). It is a place of maximum privacy, predictability, and control. Congruence of physical design and ability to engage in important activities.
PRIVACY IN THE HOME 4 Privacy is a critical feature of the home environment. In home environments many areas are off limits to visitors - “privacy gradient” Rank order the following areas with regard to being off- limits to strangers: your bedroom, family room, living room, kitchen, entrance foyer, dining room, bathroom, home office, study room Cross-cultural differences in which areas of the home are open v. s. off limits to various types of visitors In Peru & Poland the kitchen is very private. In US bedrooms (off limits, unless indicated by the hosts)
Functions of the home 5 Encompasses many functions: leisure and recreation rest and sleep family interaction biological functions work symbolic expression and emotional attachment
Work And The Home: Changes In Space Needs 6 The industrial revolution moved the function of work out of the home. The computer revolution is placing work back into the home. Dual income families have required changes in home design. Larger bathrooms and bedrooms to accommodate both people getting ready for work at the same time. A “space for her” is added.
Symbolic expression and emotional attachment 7 Home also provides a number of symbolic functions Provides a sense of place and identity: Who am I? Sense of identity through place What kind of person am I? (wealthy, free spirit, modern, arty, etc.)
Home stereotypes 8 What kind of person would be most likely to choose the following homes? Bungalow Semi-D Double Storey Terrace Single Storey Terrace Apartment Condominium Based on Age Sex Socio-economic status Occupation Attitudes
Rootedness 9 Indicator needs & satisfaction McAndrew: (1998). The measurement of rootedness and the prediction of attachment to home-towns in college students. Sentimental and emotional attachment to the home A person may be overwhelmed by emotion when as an adult they return to their childhood home
Types of attachment 10 Two types of attachment: Generic Place Dependence - Generic attachment to a certain type of environment or region Geographic Place Dependence - Attachment to a specific place The Idea that there are individual differences in degree of attachment to places Individuals with strong geographic place attachment may experience homesickness attention focus on home related thinking and activity and desire to go back home Development of a scale to measure rootedness. 16 items were tested on 134 college students. Two subscales desire for change home and family satisfaction
Typology Of Residences (Altman) 11 Permanent/temporary Differentiated/homogenous interior Communal/noncommunal living arrangement Identity/communality Openness/closedness to outsiders
D ifferentiated/homogenous 12 How differentiated/homogenous its interior is Related to the functions of rooms A highly differentiated residence has many rooms Each room has a specific activity A homogenous residence almost any activity may occur in nearly any room. Differentiation is a function of wealth
Communal/Non-communal 13 Communal/non-communal of the living arrangements The degree to which nuclear families live together or in different homes
Identity/communality 14 Identity/communality Is the residence distinctive from comparable ones around it? Specific name given? Specific colours/identity that makes it distict from other houses
Openness/closedness 15 Openness/closedness to outsiders is entry inviting or not residents are warm or cool to casual visitors culturally related.
Type Of Residence 16 Type of residence is related to Culture Stage in life cycle Socio-economic status Architectural design Personal characteristics of the dwellers
How can a residence/home be measured? 17 Approach #1: Classify it on each of the five physical structure- and use-dimensions: How differentiated/homogenous is the interior How communal are the living arrangements Approach #2: Financial What is the monetary value of the dwelling? Approach #3: Such as in Advertisement Age Architectural style Size No of rooms Approach #4: To measure the quality of a residence for a particular purpose. E.g., child development – the quality of a residence for children Scales usually measure both the physical environment of the residence (e.g., its cleanliness, size, or form) and its social environment (e.g., positiveness of parents’ vocal tone, number of stories read).
Residential Preference, Choice, And Satisfaction 18 Preferences are more predictable from:: Person’s values (personal factors) Physical form of the residence (architectural factors) Economic factors e.g., income and cost of the residence Distance
Factors influencing residential satisfaction 19 Personal Social Physical Culture
Personal influences on housing satisfaction 20 Personal influences on housing satisfaction depends on: Age and Stage of Life Socioeconomic Status Sex and Social Role Personality and Values Comparisons Dreams of the Future
Social Influences 21 Neighbours Norms Usual housing arrangements eg. For elderly people social norms for privacy and independence are important factors when they select a living arrangement Priority of others: living-group interaction Negotiation before selecting/renting a house. The shape of privacy, security, and social interaction: For privacy houses are more differentiated For security houses are smaller less territory to defend and keep occupants closer together to aid in the defense of the house For social interaction houses are designed to have greater visibility among their interior spaces and more rounded walls (socio-petal design)
Physical Influences 22 Housing form Single-family dwelling residents were found to be more satisfied than apartment residents. Architectural style Follows fashion and culture. Interior Height of ceiling Arrangement of rooms Color Outdoor areas Space for gardening, nearby green spaces.
Cultural Influences 23 Cultural Influences Italian Red-tile villas of suburbanites Portuguese the bright pastel exteriors of houses Mid America white farmhouses Traditional Malacca decorative front steps Minangkabau roof the shape of buffalos horn Long houses in sarawak
Behavior of Residents 24 Arrangement of spaces in the house People personalize their living spaces Although the residences may look identical on the outside It depends on personality, culture, and SES The spatial ecology of home Who does what, Where? Women, Men, Children, and Territory In the kitchen Fully employed women spent more time in the kitchen than fully employed men In the living room, bathroom, and bedrooms women spent more time than men in the company of others – usually children Thus, women have less privacy at home In living rooms, men spent more time than women engaged in leisure activities
Behavior of Residents 25 Privacy conflicts Cooperation-capitulation arrangements
Privacy conflicts 26 Privacy conflicts may occur depending on Which activity a person is engaged in Which parent or child desires access The size of the home, The accepted child-rearing practices in the home. The privacy conflicts can be solved by Time territory strategies involve rotating a particular space among family members Space territory strategies that place conflicting activities in different parts of the home;
Cooperation-capitulation Arrangements 27 Cooperation-capitulation arrangements occur when A dominant family member determines the family activities that everyone will engage in one activity, together, at the same time.
Residential Mobility 28 A normal process often caused by life-cycle changes: Mobility due to illness Change of occupation/school Personal reasons Personal characteristics Social economic status Marriage status (eg. single parent) Culture
Residential Environmental Design 29 Task of an Environmental Psychologist To upgrade the living environment Suggesting suitable designs
Residential Environmental Design Eg: Homes for Single-Parent Families 30 On-site or nearby child care facilities so parents feel better about working An open kitchen/living room area so parent can cook and watch their children at the same time Separate areas for children and parents Close proximity to public transportation single parents often cannot afford cars Classroom space a crucial part of escaping the poverty cycle is education Indoor as well as outdoor play space