Presentation on theme: "Word-Composition Word-composition is a productive type of word-building, in which new words are produced by combining two or more stems. E.g.: campsite,"— Presentation transcript:
1 Word-CompositionWord-composition is a productive type of word-building, in which new words are produced by combining two or more stems. E.g.: campsite, bluebird, whitewash, in-laws, jumpsuit.
2 Types of compositionNeutralMorphologicalSyntactic
3 Neutral compoundsTwo stems are joined together without any connecting elements (i.e. they are juxtaposed): scarecrow, goldfish, crybaby (плакса).
4 Subtypes of neutral compounds simple neutral compounds - consist of simple affixless stems: sunflower, bedroom, blackbirdderivational, or derived compounds - have affixes in their structure: long-legged, broad-minded, globe-trottercontracted compounds - have a shortened stem in their structure (усеченный корень): H-bag (handbag), TV-set (television set), A-bomb (atomic bomb), V-day (victory day)
5 Morphological and syntactic compounds Morphological compounds - components are joined by a linking element (‘o’, ‘i’, ‘s’): videophone, microchip; tragicomic, handicraft; craftsman. Syntactic compounds are formed by the whole fragments of speech: man-of-war (военный корабль), forget-me-not, mother-in-law.
6 Types of word-composition NeutralSimpleDerivedContractedMorphologicalSyntactic
7 Types of compounds according to their meaning Non-idiomatic - compounds whose meanings can be described as the sum of the meanings of their components: classroom, bedroom, homeland, evening-gown.Idiomatic - the meaning of the compounds cannot be described as a mere sum of its components: blackboard, football, lady-killer; ladybird, tallboy (тумбочка), bluestocking.
8 The criteria for distinguishing between a compound and a word-combination The graphic criterion: tallboy, waterfall, night-gown, film-star.The semantic criterion: E.g. tallboy - a tall boyThe phonetic criterion:́greenhouse, ́blackbird, ́tallboy -green ́house, black ́bird, tall ́boy.
9 The criteria for distinguishing between a compound and a word-combination Morphological criterion:blackbird – a black birdblackbirds – the blackest birds I’ve ever seen; a black night birdExceptions: passers-by, parks-supervisor
10 Abbreviation (contraction, shortening) Initial shortening: NASA - National Aeronautics Space Administration, NATO – North Atlantic Treaty Organization, BBC – the British Broadcasting Corporation, MP – Member of ParliamentClipping: prof, burger, bike, phone, specs, fridge, fluBlending: brunch (breakfast+lunch), smog (smoke+fog), heliport (helicopter+aeroport).
11 Minor types of word-building Onomatopoeia [ˌɔnəˌmætə'piːə]: hiss, buzz, meow, cock-a-doodle-doo, cuckoo.Reduplication: bye-bye, ta-ta; ping-pong, chit-chat (болтовня, сплетничать), shilly-shally (колебаться), walkie-talkie, mish-mash (мешанина)Back-formation: baby sitter => to babysit,beggar => to beg, burglar => to burgle, cobbler => to cobble