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Food, Sleep and the Brain Joseph A. Skelton, MD, MS Gail M. Cohen, MD, MS.

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Presentation on theme: "Food, Sleep and the Brain Joseph A. Skelton, MD, MS Gail M. Cohen, MD, MS."— Presentation transcript:

1 Food, Sleep and the Brain Joseph A. Skelton, MD, MS Gail M. Cohen, MD, MS

2 Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center Disclaimers and Conflict of Interest

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12 Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center

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16 WHAT… and HOW

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18 Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center “Give a man a fish, he will eat for a day… Learning – Experiencing – Practicing Teach a man to fish, he will eat for a lifetime”

19 Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center WHAT 3 Meals a day Smart Snacks Balanced Plate Fruits and Veggies Drinks Fast Food Portion Sizes

20 Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center HOW Family Meals Modeling Warmth and Support Consistency and Scheduling Mindfulness Pressuring and Autonomy Environment

21 Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center Sleep requirements TOTAL SLEEPNIGHT TIMEDAY TIME NEWBORN16h (9-19h)8h INFANT14h (10-18h)10h4h TODDLER13h (10-17h)10h3h PRESCHOOL12h (10 – 16h)10h2h SCHOOL AGE11h (9-13h) ADOLESCENT9h (7-10h)

22 Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center Sleep problems in children Very common! 25-50% of preschoolers 37% of school age children 40% of adolescents

23 Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center Consequences of insufficient sleep

24 Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center Parenting Styles High expectations for self-control Low expectations for self-control High sensitivity Authoritative Respectful of child’s opinions, but maintains clear boundaries Permissive Indulgent, without discipline Low sensitivity Authoritarian Strict disciplinarian Neglectful Emotionally uninvolved and does not set rules

25 Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center Division of Responsibility Caregivers role Provide a variety of healthy, nutritious foods Offer healthy choices Allow child to listen to cues for hunger & fullness Engage child in decision-making Let go of being in control Don’t force eating or food acceptance, or restrict food Child’s role Choose to eat/drink out of provided foods Determine when they are full Become involved in meal planning and preparation Satter, E (1987). How to Get Your Kid to Eat…But Not too much

26 Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center Division of Responsibility Schedule and Consistency Set times for meals Keeps relaxed Structure and predictability, just like bedtime Create a calm setting for meals and snacks At the table TV OFF! Have a consistent family plan Caregiver agreement Consistency

27 Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center 8 P’s of Feeding Children Patience: Good habits take a while Persistence: Offer foods over and over (15+) Planning: Families are busy- must plan to cook Peaceful Meals: Meal times should be happy Parents Prove it!: Parents model health eating Proper Meals: All meals and snacks at set times, at the table, with the TV off! Don’t Push or Prohibit: Will decrease or increase preference for food

28 Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center Preschool children No true “division of responsibility” Parents’ job remains the same: Consistency Routine/schedule Calm setting

29 Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center Not enough sleep? Emotional lability Daytime sleepiness Irritability Hyperactivity Difficult behavior Maternal depression

30 Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center I’m huuuunnnnrrrrggggeeee!

31 Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center Hunger and Fullness Ready to eat: Environment and External Stimuli See food Smell food Think about food Finished eating: Genetic “Stomach size” Internal cues HEAVILY influenced by environmental cues Eat through fullness: 6-8 years of age?

32 Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center I’m huuuunnnnrrrrggggeeee! Yummy Hungry See food Smell Food Think about food “I’m hungry” Tummy Hungry Skipped meal Hasn’t eaten in 6-8 hours Tired and weak “Yeah, I’m hungry” Answer to both is the same: Prevention! Division of Responsibility: defuse the fight! Schedule and planning

33 Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center School aged children

34 Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center Screens in the bedroom

35 Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center Caffeine!!

36 Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center Not enough sleep? Poor attention or concentration Oppositional or aggressive behavior Anxiety symptoms Mood disorders Aggression ADHD-type symptoms Obesity or metabolic dysfunction Family conflict

37 Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center 37 Family Meals 2/3rds of families do not have a daily family meal Cheaper than eating out Healthier Kids who eat meals with their families: Better grades Happier Less likely to smoke, use marijuana, or drink alcohol

38 Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center Adolescents and “sleep debt” Increasing demands of school/homework More autonomy Extracurricular activities Availability of other activities at home and in bedroom (screens!) Delayed sleep phase syndrome

39 Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center Academics and athletics Less sleep impacts daytime functioning Lower grades Unwilling to tackle harder tasks

40 Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center Not enough sleep? Poor attention or concentration Disinterested, lazy Depression or anxiety Limited connectedness Suicidal ideation Lack of coordination Poor school performance Reduction of goal-directed behaviors Headaches Substance use Metabolic dysfunction, obesity Family conflict

41 Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center Nutrition and Children WHAT is easy… …HOW can be tough Every family is different -Need flexibility and patience Mindful of eating and nutrition… …but not obsessive Goal: building habits, teaching your children through Practice, Modeling, and Schedules

42 Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center Take Home Points “We make time for what is important to us” Family meals Meal Planning Mindful Eating Aware of food environment Food is not the enemy Yummy Hungry/Tummy Hungry Nobody is Perfect!

43 Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center Tips for good sleep hygiene… …AT ANY AGE! Positive bedtime routine every day Consistent bedtime and wake time 7 days/week Avoid substances No food or drinks in bed No screens in the bedroom Avoid exercise or stimulating activities at bedtime Keep bedroom dark and comfortable

44 Thank you


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