Presentation on theme: "Who Am I? I am… # from 1-20 & beside each number list what you consider to be some of your own positive and negative personality qualities. - meet with."— Presentation transcript:
Who Am I? I am… # from 1-20 & beside each number list what you consider to be some of your own positive and negative personality qualities. - meet with group and answer some questions
Introduce yourself to other members of the group and tell them about your personality. After everyone has spoken… – Identify the four descriptive terms used most frequently – Why does the group think these specific terms were used to describe personality? – Identify any of the self-descriptive terms that do not really qualify as personality characteristics. – What makes a personal quality part of your personality?
Introduction Personality –A–An individual’s characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling & acting. –E–Enduring behavior patterns that make us unique behavioral consistency
Field of Personality Psychology construct tests to determine unique personality traits How are mind & body related? Is personality inherited or learned? Do humans have free will? Is there a self? Is the self knowable?
Exploring the Unconscious Parts of the mind –Conscious –Preconscious –UnconsciousUnconscious a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, & memories. According to contemporary psychologists, information processing of which we are unaware Free association –exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing Psychoanalysis
Freud’s theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts the techniques used in treating psychological disorders by seeking to expose and interpret unconscious tensions
Exploring the Unconscious Defense Mechanisms Defense mechanisms –Repression banishes anxiety- arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness. –RegressionRegression retreats to a more infantile psychosexual stage, where some psychic energy remains fixated. –Reaction formationReaction formation Reduces anxiety by taking up opposite feeling
–ProjectionProjection Putting our own unacceptable qualities onto someone else (false consensus effect) –RationalizationRationalization Self-justifying explanations –DisplacementDisplacement Taking out our unacceptable feelings on less threatening objects or persons –SublimationSublimation Channeling unacceptable impulses into socially acceptable forms –DenialDenial Refuse to believe painful realities
Children who release unexpressed anger toward their parents by kicking the family pet illustrate the defense mechanism of Displacement Mrs. Smith, who is White and unconsciously in favor of racial segregation, tells her friends that most Blacks prefer to live in residential neighborhoods inhabited predominantly by Blacks. According to psychoanalytic theory, Mrs. Smith best illustrates Projection A religious leader who attempts to overcome his hidden doubts with intense expressions of spiritual certainty illustrates most clearly the defense mechanism of Reaction Formation
After an argument with your girlfriend, you go to the gym and lift weights to burn off your pent-up energy. Your action best illustrates which defense mechanism? Sublimation After an argument with your little brother, you slam the door to your bedroom instead of hitting him. Your action best illustrates which defense mechanism? Displacement
Defense Mechanisms 1.E 2.A 3.C 4.G 5.F 6.D 7.E 8.F 9.B 10. A 11. C 12. E 13. G 14. D 15. B 16. F 17. A 18. C 19. D 20. B 21. E 22.A 23. F 24.G 25. D 26. C 27. G 28. F 29. C 30. B 31. D 32. G 33. B 34. E 35. A
Objective 3: The Neo-Freudian Theorists Neo-Freudians Jung collective unconsciouscollective unconscious – common set of ideas, feelings, images Archetypes Adler –Striving for superiority (self improvement) Superiority Complex Inferiority complex Social Interest – innate potential to cooperate w/ society Horney(“HORN-eye”) Personality develops in terms of social relationships
Assessing Unconscious Processes Projective Test –provides ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projection of one’s inner dynamics –Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)Thematic Apperception Test people express their inner feelings and interests through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes. –Rorschach Inkblot TestRorschach Inkblot Test the most widely used projective test, a set of 10 inkblots designed by Hermann Rorschach seeks to identify people’s inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots.
Evaluating the Psychoanalytic Perspective Contradictory Evidence –lifelong, not fixed –overestimate parental influence –gender identity doesn’t happen at 5 or 6 –dreams –Freudian slips Is repression a myth? The modern unconscious mind –Terror management theoryTerror management theory Freud’s ideas as scientific theory defend ourselves against anxiety testable?
Traits Trait –Describing rather than explaining –Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) (1987) sort people by Jung’s personality types scientific worth??? rejected both a psychoanalytic approach to personality, which he thought often went too deep, and a behavioral approach, which he thought often did not go deep enough. He emphasized the uniqueness of each individual, and the importance of the present context, as opposed to past history, for understanding the personality. Gordon Allport 18,000
Exploring Traits Factor analysis –statistical procedure that identifies clusters of correlated test items –Catell 16 PF (range) –Eysenck & Eysenck (EYE-zink) Extroversion vs. introversion Emotional stability vs instability factors are genetically influenced….is there scientific support for their claim? How can we condense the list of traits?
Exploring Traits Biology and Personality Brain scans –extraverts seek stimulation b/c their normal brain arousal is relatively low Genetics –Autonomic nervous system reactivity reactive = respond to stress w/ greater anxiety & inhibition Dopamine levels
Assessing Personality in Trait Theory Psychoanalysis used projective tests Humanistic compared actual to ideal self Trait theory utilized personality inventories Minn. Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) – Assess abnormal traits – Empirically derived questions – True or False – Objective (computer scores) but this doesn’t ensure validity (people can lie)
Assessing Traits Personality inventory –Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) Empirically derived test Objective test –doesn’t ensure validity… Lie scale –Handout 10-7 Personal Attitudes & Traits 1pt True = 1,2,4,7,8,13,16,17,18,20,21,24,25,26,27,29,31,33 1pt False =3,5,6,9,10,11,12,14,15,19,22,23,28,30,32 Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale. Some respondents tend to give socially desirable rather than honest responses. (#4, #11) Mean: 13.2
Handout 10-8 Self-Monitoring Scale Assess the extent to which people observe and control their expressive behavior. Self-presentation / concern for social appropriateness. Stage Actors = 18.4 (higher) – guided by external factors Patients = 10.1 (lower) – less variable across situations – more stable relationships – inner directed 1pt True = #5-8,10,11,13,15,16,18,19,24,25 1pt False = #1-4, 9, 12,14, 17, 20-23
Handout 10-9 Dating Survey exclusive daters = score lower on self- monitoring scale – tend to select partner when asked if they could ideally form a close, intimate dating relationship w/ either current dating partner or friend multiple daters = tend to score higher on SM scale – tend to select friends as preferred dating partners
The Big Five Factors The Big Five –Conscientiousness –Agreeableness –Neuroticism Emotional stability vs instability –Openness –Extraversion Handout 10-10 20’s 30’s- 60s
The Big Five Factors Questions on The Big Five –How stable are the traits? –How heritable are the traits? –Do the traits predict other personal attributes?
Handout 10-10 Samuel Gosling’s Modified Big Five Test Reverse #’s 2-4-6-8-10 1=7 2=6 3=5 4=4 5=3 6=2 7=1 C = (3 & 8) A = (2 & 7) N = (4 & 9) O = (5 & 10) E = (1 & 6)
The Big Five Factors C = (3 & 8) A = (2 & 7) N = (4 & 9) O = (5 & 10) E = (1 & 6)
Evaluating the Trait Perspective The Person-Situation Controversy Person-situation controversy –Are traits consistent? –Can traits predict behavior?
The Social-Cognitive Perspective “Unless people believe they can produce desired effects, and forestall undesired ones by their actions, they have little incentive to act, or to persevere in the face of difficulties” --Albert Bandura
The Social-Cognitive Perspective Social-cognitive perspective –Social-behavioral approach Personality dev. largely from differences in the way people construe their worlds.
Reciprocal Influences Ways individuals and the environment interact –Different people choose different environments…and then it shapes you –Our personalities shape how we interpret and react to events…anxious people –Our personalities help create situations to which we react…how we treat people influences how they in turn treat us
Personal Control Personal control –Two ways to study personal control Correlate people’s feelings of control with their behaviors and achievements Experiment by raising and lowering people’s sense of control and noting the effects Internal vs. external locus of control Self control requires attention & energy ROTTER
Personal Control Benefits of Personal Control Learned helplessness
Personal Control Benefits of Personal Control Learned helplessness
Personal Control Benefits of Personal Control Learned helplessness
Personal Control Benefits of Personal Control Learned helplessness Nursing Home Studies
Personal Control Benefits of Personal Control Learned helplessness Tyranny of choice
Personal Control Optimism Versus Pessimism Optimism and Health Excessive Optimism –realistic anxiety Blindness to one’s own incompetence –People most overconfident when incompetent –Invite others’ assessments Positive psychology –Optimal human functioning –Seligman
Assessing Behavior in Situations US Army spy training Business use of simulations –assess behavior in real situations
Evaluating the Social-Cognitive Perspective Based on research (+) Focuses too much on the situation (-)
Handout 10-25 DO NOT put name on paper Answer questions Turn in Paper = Shuffle Add all the numbers and find the mean Show of hands…how many have a scored paper of 5 or higher… “Better-Than- Average Phenomenon”
Handout 10-26 Self-Serving Bias – We tend to present a good image and tend to be modest if our own self-flattery could be debunked – We assume more responsibility for our success than our failures… Makes sense…we intend to succeed; and we usually do – Self-Handicapping is a no lose situation for self- esteem
Exploring the Self Self –Possible selves –Spotlight effectSpotlight effect
The Benefits of Self-Esteem Self-esteem –Does feeling good simply follow doing well? –Dangers of pushing artificially high? –Low self-esteem does have and effect … tend to disparage others
Self-Serving Bias Self-serving bias –People accept more responsibility for good deeds than for bad, successes than failures –Most people see themselves as better than average…except who?
Culture and the Self (p.516-518) Individualism Collectivism
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Personality = an individual’s characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting.
Free Association = in psychoanalysis, a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing.
Psychoanalysis = Freud’s theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts; the techniques used in treating psychological disorders by seeking to expose and interpret unconscious tensions.
Unconscious = according to Freud, a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories. According to contemporary psychologists, information processing of which we are unaware.
Id = a reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that, according to Freud, strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives. The id operates on the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification.
Ego = the largely conscious, “executive” part of personality that, according to Freud, mediates among the demands of the id, superego, and reality. The ego operates on the reality principle, satisfying the id’s desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather than pain.
Superego = the part of personality that, according to Freud, represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgment (the conscience) and for future aspirations.
Psychosexual Stages = the childhood stages of development, (oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital) during which, according to Freud, the id’s pleasure-seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones.
Oedipus Complex = according to Freud, a boy’s sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father.
Identification = the process by which, according to Freud, children incorporate their parent’s values into their developing superegos.
Fixation = according to Freud, a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual state, in which conflicts were unresolved.
Defense Mechanisms = in psychoanalytic theory, the ego’s protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality.
Repression = in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes anxiety- arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness.
Regression = psychoanalytic defense mechanism in which an individual faced with anxiety retreats to a more infantile psychosexual stage, where some psychic energy remains fixated.
Reaction Formation = psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which the ego unconsciously switches unacceptable impulse into their opposites. Thus, people may express feelings that are the opposite of their anxiety-arousing unconscious feelings.
Projection = psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which people disguise their own threatening impulses by attributing them to others.
Rationalization = psychoanalytic defense mechanism that offers self-justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening, unconscious reasons for one’s actions.
Displacement = psychoanalytic defense mechanism that shifts sexual or aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or person, as when redirecting anger toward a safer outlet.
Sublimation = psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which people re-channel their unacceptable impulses into socially approved activities.
Denial = psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which people refuse to believe or even to perceive painful realities.
Collective Unconscious = Carl Jung’s concept of a shared, inherited reservoir of memory traces from our species’ history.
Projective Test = a personality test, such as the Rorschach or TAT, that provides ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projection of one’s inner dynamics.
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) = a projective test in which people express their inner feelings and interests through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes.
Rorschach Inkblot Test = the most widely used projective test, a set of 10 inkblots, designed by Hermann Rorschach; seeks to identify people’s inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots.
Terror-management Theory = a theory of death-related anxiety; explores people’s emotional and behavioral responses to reminders of their impending death.
Self-actualization = according to Maslow, one of the ultimate psychological needs that arises after basic physical and psychological needs are met and self-esteem is achieved; the motivation to fulfill one’s potential.
Unconditional Positive Regard = according to Rogers, an attitude of total acceptance toward another person.
Self-concept = all our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in answer to the question, “Who am I?”
Trait = a characteristic pattern of behavior or a disposition to feel and act, as assessed by self-report inventories and peer reports.
Personality Inventory = a questionnaire (often true-false or agree- disagree items) on which people respond to items designed to gauge a wide range of feelings and behaviors; used to assess selected personality traits.
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) = the most widely researched and clinically used of all personality tests. Originally developed to identify emotional disorders (still considered its most appropriate use), this test is now used for many other screening purposes.
Empirically Derived Test = a test (such as the MMPI) developed by testing a pool of items and then selecting those that discriminate between groups.
Social-cognitive Perspective = views behavior as influenced by the interaction between people’s traits (including their thinking) and their social context.
Reciprocal Determinism = the interacting influences of behavior, internal cognition, and environment.
Personal Control = the extent to which people perceive control over their environment rather than feeling helpless.
External Locus of Control = the perception that chance or outside forces beyond your personal control determine your fate.
Internal Locus of Control = the perception that you control your own fate.
Positive Psychology = the scientific study of optimal human functioning; aims to discover and promote strengths and virtues that enable individuals and communities to thrive.
Self = in contemporary psychology, assumed to be the center of personality, the organizer of our thoughts, feelings, and actions.
Spotlight Effect = overestimating other’s noticing and evaluating our appearance, performance, and blunders (as if we presume a spotlight shines on us).
Self-esteem = one’s feelings of high or low self-worth.
Self-serving Bias = a readiness to perceive oneself favorably.
Individualism = giving priority to one’s own goals to over group goals and defining one’s identity in terms of personal attributes rather than than group identifications
Collectivism = giving priority to the goals of one’s group (often one’s extended family or work group) and defining one’s identity accordingly.