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Who Am I? I am… # from 1-20 & beside each number list what you consider to be some of your own positive and negative personality qualities. - meet with.

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Presentation on theme: "Who Am I? I am… # from 1-20 & beside each number list what you consider to be some of your own positive and negative personality qualities. - meet with."— Presentation transcript:

1 Who Am I? I am… # from 1-20 & beside each number list what you consider to be some of your own positive and negative personality qualities. - meet with group and answer some questions

2 Introduce yourself to other members of the group and tell them about your personality. After everyone has spoken… – Identify the four descriptive terms used most frequently – Why does the group think these specific terms were used to describe personality? – Identify any of the self-descriptive terms that do not really qualify as personality characteristics. – What makes a personal quality part of your personality?

3 Unit 10: Personality

4 Introduction Personality –A–An individual’s characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling & acting. –E–Enduring behavior patterns that make us unique behavioral consistency

5 Field of Personality Psychology construct tests to determine unique personality traits How are mind & body related? Is personality inherited or learned? Do humans have free will? Is there a self? Is the self knowable?

6 Psychoanalytic Perspective

7 Exploring the Unconscious Parts of the mind –Conscious –Preconscious –UnconsciousUnconscious a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, & memories. According to contemporary psychologists, information processing of which we are unaware Free association –exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing Psychoanalysis

8 Freud’s theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts the techniques used in treating psychological disorders by seeking to expose and interpret unconscious tensions

9 Exploring the Unconscious Personality Structure Personality structure –IdId Pleasure principle –EgoEgo Reality principle –SuperegoSuperego conscience guilt Defense mechanism

10 Exploring the Unconscious Personality Development Psychosexual stages –Oral –Anal –Phallic –Latency –Genital Orange Aardvarks Push Lazy Goats

11 Exploring the Unconscious Psychosexual Stages

12 Erogenous Zones fixated: seeking others’ approval

13 Exploring the Unconscious Psychosexual Stages control

14 Exploring the Unconscious Psychosexual Stages Oedipus Complex gender identity conflict resolution

15 Exploring the Unconscious Psychosexual Stages

16 Exploring the Unconscious Personality Development Erogenous zones Oedipus complex Electra complex Identification Fixation

17 Personality Psychoanalytic / Psychodynamic Humanistic Trait Theory Social Cognitive

18 Exploring the Unconscious Psychosexual Stages

19 Exploring the Unconscious Defense Mechanisms Defense mechanisms –Repression banishes anxiety- arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness. –RegressionRegression retreats to a more infantile psychosexual stage, where some psychic energy remains fixated. –Reaction formationReaction formation Reduces anxiety by taking up opposite feeling

20 –ProjectionProjection Putting our own unacceptable qualities onto someone else (false consensus effect) –RationalizationRationalization Self-justifying explanations –DisplacementDisplacement Taking out our unacceptable feelings on less threatening objects or persons –SublimationSublimation Channeling unacceptable impulses into socially acceptable forms –DenialDenial Refuse to believe painful realities

21 Children who release unexpressed anger toward their parents by kicking the family pet illustrate the defense mechanism of Displacement Mrs. Smith, who is White and unconsciously in favor of racial segregation, tells her friends that most Blacks prefer to live in residential neighborhoods inhabited predominantly by Blacks. According to psychoanalytic theory, Mrs. Smith best illustrates Projection A religious leader who attempts to overcome his hidden doubts with intense expressions of spiritual certainty illustrates most clearly the defense mechanism of Reaction Formation

22 After an argument with your girlfriend, you go to the gym and lift weights to burn off your pent-up energy. Your action best illustrates which defense mechanism? Sublimation After an argument with your little brother, you slam the door to your bedroom instead of hitting him. Your action best illustrates which defense mechanism? Displacement

23 Defense Mechanisms 1.E 2.A 3.C 4.G 5.F 6.D 7.E 8.F 9.B 10. A 11. C 12. E 13. G 14. D 15. B 16. F 17. A 18. C 19. D 20. B 21. E 22.A 23. F 24.G 25. D 26. C 27. G 28. F 29. C 30. B 31. D 32. G 33. B 34. E 35. A

24 Objective 3: The Neo-Freudian Theorists Neo-Freudians Jung collective unconsciouscollective unconscious – common set of ideas, feelings, images Archetypes Adler –Striving for superiority (self improvement) Superiority Complex Inferiority complex Social Interest – innate potential to cooperate w/ society Horney(“HORN-eye”) Personality develops in terms of social relationships

25 Assessing Unconscious Processes Projective Test –provides ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projection of one’s inner dynamics –Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)Thematic Apperception Test people express their inner feelings and interests through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes. –Rorschach Inkblot TestRorschach Inkblot Test the most widely used projective test, a set of 10 inkblots designed by Hermann Rorschach seeks to identify people’s inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots.

26 Evaluating the Psychoanalytic Perspective Contradictory Evidence –lifelong, not fixed –overestimate parental influence –gender identity doesn’t happen at 5 or 6 –dreams –Freudian slips Is repression a myth? The modern unconscious mind –Terror management theoryTerror management theory Freud’s ideas as scientific theory defend ourselves against anxiety testable?

27 The Humanistic Perspective

28 Abraham Maslow’s Self-Actualizing Person Abraham Maslow –motivated by hierarchy of needs –Self-actualizationSelf-actualization –Self-transcendence –Peak experiences

29 Carl Roger’s Person-Centered Perspective Carl Rogers –Growth promoting climate Genuineness Acceptance Empathy –Unconditional positive regardUnconditional positive regard –Self-conceptSelf-concept

30 Assessing the Self Self-report tests Ideal versus actual self

31 Evaluating the Humanistic Perspective Renewed interest in self-concept Criticisms –Vague and subjective –Individualistic and Western biased –Naïve

32 The Trait Perspective unconscious forces growth opportunities stable & enduring patterns

33 Traits Trait –Describing rather than explaining –Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) (1987) sort people by Jung’s personality types scientific worth??? rejected both a psychoanalytic approach to personality, which he thought often went too deep, and a behavioral approach, which he thought often did not go deep enough. He emphasized the uniqueness of each individual, and the importance of the present context, as opposed to past history, for understanding the personality. Gordon Allport 18,000

34 Exploring Traits Factor analysis –statistical procedure that identifies clusters of correlated test items –Catell 16 PF (range) –Eysenck & Eysenck (EYE-zink) Extroversion vs. introversion Emotional stability vs instability factors are genetically influenced….is there scientific support for their claim? How can we condense the list of traits?

35 Exploring Traits Biology and Personality Brain scans –extraverts seek stimulation b/c their normal brain arousal is relatively low Genetics –Autonomic nervous system reactivity reactive = respond to stress w/ greater anxiety & inhibition Dopamine levels

36 Assessing Personality in Trait Theory Psychoanalysis used projective tests Humanistic compared actual to ideal self Trait theory utilized personality inventories Minn. Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) – Assess abnormal traits – Empirically derived questions – True or False – Objective (computer scores) but this doesn’t ensure validity (people can lie)

37 Assessing Traits Personality inventory –Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) Empirically derived test Objective test –doesn’t ensure validity… Lie scale –Handout 10-7 Personal Attitudes & Traits 1pt True = 1,2,4,7,8,13,16,17,18,20,21,24,25,26,27,29,31,33 1pt False =3,5,6,9,10,11,12,14,15,19,22,23,28,30,32 Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale. Some respondents tend to give socially desirable rather than honest responses. (#4, #11) Mean: 13.2

38 Handout 10-8 Self-Monitoring Scale Assess the extent to which people observe and control their expressive behavior. Self-presentation / concern for social appropriateness. Stage Actors = 18.4 (higher) – guided by external factors Patients = 10.1 (lower) – less variable across situations – more stable relationships – inner directed 1pt True = #5-8,10,11,13,15,16,18,19,24,25 1pt False = #1-4, 9, 12,14, 17, 20-23

39 Handout 10-9 Dating Survey exclusive daters = score lower on self- monitoring scale – tend to select partner when asked if they could ideally form a close, intimate dating relationship w/ either current dating partner or friend multiple daters = tend to score higher on SM scale – tend to select friends as preferred dating partners

40 The Big Five Factors The Big Five –Conscientiousness –Agreeableness –Neuroticism Emotional stability vs instability –Openness –Extraversion Handout ’s 30’s- 60s

41 The Big Five Factors Questions on The Big Five –How stable are the traits? –How heritable are the traits? –Do the traits predict other personal attributes?

42 Handout Samuel Gosling’s Modified Big Five Test Reverse #’s =7 2=6 3=5 4=4 5=3 6=2 7=1 C = (3 & 8) A = (2 & 7) N = (4 & 9) O = (5 & 10) E = (1 & 6)

43 The Big Five Factors C = (3 & 8) A = (2 & 7) N = (4 & 9) O = (5 & 10) E = (1 & 6)

44 Evaluating the Trait Perspective The Person-Situation Controversy Person-situation controversy –Are traits consistent? –Can traits predict behavior?

45 The Social-Cognitive Perspective “Unless people believe they can produce desired effects, and forestall undesired ones by their actions, they have little incentive to act, or to persevere in the face of difficulties” --Albert Bandura

46 The Social-Cognitive Perspective Social-cognitive perspective –Social-behavioral approach Personality dev. largely from differences in the way people construe their worlds.

47 Reciprocal Influences Reciprocal determinism –interacting influence

48 Reciprocal Influences Ways individuals and the environment interact –Different people choose different environments…and then it shapes you –Our personalities shape how we interpret and react to events…anxious people –Our personalities help create situations to which we react…how we treat people influences how they in turn treat us

49 Personal Control Personal control –Two ways to study personal control Correlate people’s feelings of control with their behaviors and achievements Experiment by raising and lowering people’s sense of control and noting the effects Internal vs. external locus of control Self control requires attention & energy ROTTER

50 Personal Control Benefits of Personal Control Learned helplessness

51 Personal Control Benefits of Personal Control Learned helplessness

52 Personal Control Benefits of Personal Control Learned helplessness

53 Personal Control Benefits of Personal Control Learned helplessness Nursing Home Studies

54 Personal Control Benefits of Personal Control Learned helplessness Tyranny of choice

55 Personal Control Optimism Versus Pessimism Optimism and Health Excessive Optimism –realistic anxiety Blindness to one’s own incompetence –People most overconfident when incompetent –Invite others’ assessments Positive psychology –Optimal human functioning –Seligman

56 Assessing Behavior in Situations US Army spy training Business use of simulations –assess behavior in real situations

57 Evaluating the Social-Cognitive Perspective Based on research (+) Focuses too much on the situation (-)

58 Handout DO NOT put name on paper Answer questions Turn in Paper = Shuffle Add all the numbers and find the mean Show of hands…how many have a scored paper of 5 or higher… “Better-Than- Average Phenomenon”

59 Handout Self-Serving Bias – We tend to present a good image and tend to be modest if our own self-flattery could be debunked – We assume more responsibility for our success than our failures… Makes sense…we intend to succeed; and we usually do – Self-Handicapping is a no lose situation for self- esteem

60 Exploring the Self Self –Possible selves –Spotlight effectSpotlight effect

61 The Benefits of Self-Esteem Self-esteem –Does feeling good simply follow doing well? –Dangers of pushing artificially high? –Low self-esteem does have and effect … tend to disparage others

62 Self-Serving Bias Self-serving bias –People accept more responsibility for good deeds than for bad, successes than failures –Most people see themselves as better than average…except who?

63 Culture and the Self (p ) Individualism Collectivism

64 Individualism versus Collectivism

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72 The End

73 Teacher Information Types of Files – This presentation has been saved as a “basic” Powerpoint file. While this file format placed a few limitations on the presentation, it insured the file would be compatible with the many versions of Powerpoint teachers use. To add functionality to the presentation, teachers may want to save the file for their specific version of Powerpoint. Animation – Once again, to insure compatibility with all versions of Powerpoint, none of the slides are animated. To increase student interest, it is suggested teachers animate the slides wherever possible. Adding slides to this presentation – Teachers are encouraged to adapt this presentation to their personal teaching style. To help keep a sense of continuity, blank slides which can be copied and pasted to a specific location in the presentation follow this “Teacher Information” section.

74 Teacher Information Hyperlink Slides - This presentation contain two types of hyperlinks. Hyperlinks can be identified by the text being underlined and a different color (usually purple). – Unit subsections hyperlinks: Immediately after the unit title slide, a page (slide #3) can be found listing all of the unit’s subsections. While in slide show mode, clicking on any of these hyperlinks will take the user directly to the beginning of that subsection. This allows teachers quick access to each subsection. – Bold print term hyperlinks: Every bold print term from the unit is included in this presentation as a hyperlink. While in slide show mode, clicking on any of the hyperlinks will take the user to a slide containing the formal definition of the term. Clicking on the “arrow” in the bottom left corner of the definition slide will take the user back to the original point in the presentation. These hyperlinks were included for teachers who want students to see or copy down the exact definition as stated in the text. Most teachers prefer the definitions not be included to prevent students from only “copying down what is on the screen” and not actively listening to the presentation. For teachers who continually use the Bold Print Term Hyperlinks option, please contact the author using the address on the next slide to learn a technique to expedite the returning to the original point in the presentation.

75 Teacher Information Continuity slides – Throughout this presentation there are slides, usually of graphics or tables, that build on one another. These are included for three purposes. By presenting information in small chunks, students will find it easier to process and remember the concepts. By continually changing slides, students will stay interested in the presentation. To facilitate class discussion and critical thinking. Students should be encouraged to think about “what might come next” in the series of slides. Please feel free to contact me at with any questions, concerns, suggestions, etc. regarding these Kent Korek Germantown High School Germantown, WI

76 Division title (green print) subdivision title ( blue print) xxx –xxx

77 Division title (green print) subdivision title ( blue print) Use this slide to add a table, chart, clip art, picture, diagram, or video clip. Delete this box when finished

78 Definition Slide = add definition here

79 Definition Slides

80 Personality = an individual’s characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting.

81 Free Association = in psychoanalysis, a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing.

82 Psychoanalysis = Freud’s theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts; the techniques used in treating psychological disorders by seeking to expose and interpret unconscious tensions.

83 Unconscious = according to Freud, a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories. According to contemporary psychologists, information processing of which we are unaware.

84 Id = a reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that, according to Freud, strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives. The id operates on the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification.

85 Ego = the largely conscious, “executive” part of personality that, according to Freud, mediates among the demands of the id, superego, and reality. The ego operates on the reality principle, satisfying the id’s desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather than pain.

86 Superego = the part of personality that, according to Freud, represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgment (the conscience) and for future aspirations.

87 Psychosexual Stages = the childhood stages of development, (oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital) during which, according to Freud, the id’s pleasure-seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones.

88 Oedipus Complex = according to Freud, a boy’s sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father.

89 Identification = the process by which, according to Freud, children incorporate their parent’s values into their developing superegos.

90 Fixation = according to Freud, a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual state, in which conflicts were unresolved.

91 Defense Mechanisms = in psychoanalytic theory, the ego’s protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality.

92 Repression = in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes anxiety- arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness.

93 Regression = psychoanalytic defense mechanism in which an individual faced with anxiety retreats to a more infantile psychosexual stage, where some psychic energy remains fixated.

94 Reaction Formation = psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which the ego unconsciously switches unacceptable impulse into their opposites. Thus, people may express feelings that are the opposite of their anxiety-arousing unconscious feelings.

95 Projection = psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which people disguise their own threatening impulses by attributing them to others.

96 Rationalization = psychoanalytic defense mechanism that offers self-justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening, unconscious reasons for one’s actions.

97 Displacement = psychoanalytic defense mechanism that shifts sexual or aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or person, as when redirecting anger toward a safer outlet.

98 Sublimation = psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which people re-channel their unacceptable impulses into socially approved activities.

99 Denial = psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which people refuse to believe or even to perceive painful realities.

100 Collective Unconscious = Carl Jung’s concept of a shared, inherited reservoir of memory traces from our species’ history.

101 Projective Test = a personality test, such as the Rorschach or TAT, that provides ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projection of one’s inner dynamics.

102 Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) = a projective test in which people express their inner feelings and interests through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes.

103 Rorschach Inkblot Test = the most widely used projective test, a set of 10 inkblots, designed by Hermann Rorschach; seeks to identify people’s inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots.

104 Terror-management Theory = a theory of death-related anxiety; explores people’s emotional and behavioral responses to reminders of their impending death.

105 Self-actualization = according to Maslow, one of the ultimate psychological needs that arises after basic physical and psychological needs are met and self-esteem is achieved; the motivation to fulfill one’s potential.

106 Unconditional Positive Regard = according to Rogers, an attitude of total acceptance toward another person.

107 Self-concept = all our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in answer to the question, “Who am I?”

108 Trait = a characteristic pattern of behavior or a disposition to feel and act, as assessed by self-report inventories and peer reports.

109 Personality Inventory = a questionnaire (often true-false or agree- disagree items) on which people respond to items designed to gauge a wide range of feelings and behaviors; used to assess selected personality traits.

110 Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) = the most widely researched and clinically used of all personality tests. Originally developed to identify emotional disorders (still considered its most appropriate use), this test is now used for many other screening purposes.

111 Empirically Derived Test = a test (such as the MMPI) developed by testing a pool of items and then selecting those that discriminate between groups.

112 Social-cognitive Perspective = views behavior as influenced by the interaction between people’s traits (including their thinking) and their social context.

113 Reciprocal Determinism = the interacting influences of behavior, internal cognition, and environment.

114 Personal Control = the extent to which people perceive control over their environment rather than feeling helpless.

115 External Locus of Control = the perception that chance or outside forces beyond your personal control determine your fate.

116 Internal Locus of Control = the perception that you control your own fate.

117 Positive Psychology = the scientific study of optimal human functioning; aims to discover and promote strengths and virtues that enable individuals and communities to thrive.

118 Self = in contemporary psychology, assumed to be the center of personality, the organizer of our thoughts, feelings, and actions.

119 Spotlight Effect = overestimating other’s noticing and evaluating our appearance, performance, and blunders (as if we presume a spotlight shines on us).

120 Self-esteem = one’s feelings of high or low self-worth.

121 Self-serving Bias = a readiness to perceive oneself favorably.

122 Individualism = giving priority to one’s own goals to over group goals and defining one’s identity in terms of personal attributes rather than than group identifications

123 Collectivism = giving priority to the goals of one’s group (often one’s extended family or work group) and defining one’s identity accordingly.


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