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The Convention on Biological Diversity, The Global Taxonomy Initiative and managing local biodiversity Chris Lyal UK National Focal Point, GTI.

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Presentation on theme: "The Convention on Biological Diversity, The Global Taxonomy Initiative and managing local biodiversity Chris Lyal UK National Focal Point, GTI."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Convention on Biological Diversity, The Global Taxonomy Initiative and managing local biodiversity Chris Lyal UK National Focal Point, GTI

2 Contents of talk I’m going to talk about: Policy Biodiversity – variation at genetic, species and ecosystem levels Taxonomy – naming of species of animals, plants, fungi and microrganisms Collections of those organisms In the context of tourism and Protected areas

3 The UN Convention on Biological Diversity

4 The Convention on Biological Diversity Role of CBD: International legal framework Political agreement To initiate and facilitate action

5 CBD: Objectives Three core objectives: To promote: Conservation of biodiversity Sustainable use of biodiversity Fair and equitable sharing of benefits from utilization of genetic resources

6 CBD: How it works CBD has 42 binding Articles: Refined and regulated by ‘Conference of the Parties’ (COP) COP informed by ‘Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice’ (SBSTTA) Executive Secretary and Secretariat manage process

7 CBD: How it works COP has met 10 times Taken 296 Decisions, many of them very extensive Provide guidance on how to implement the CBD

8 CBD implementation: Action at a national level Communication between Secretariat and Country is via National Focal Points In Turkey: CBD Focal Point (Directorate General of Nature Conservation and National Parks) Protected Areas FP (Directorate General of Nature Conservation and National Parks) GTI FP (Dr. A. Ertuğ Firat, Agean Agricultural Research Institute) Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety FP (Dr. Vehbi Eser, Field Crops Research Department, Directorate General of Agricultural Research)

9 CBD implementation: Action at a national level CBD national government national laws integration into other areas National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan conservation initiatives national reports goals and obligations

10

11 CBD ‘Thematic areas’ Agricultural biological diversity Dry and sub-humid lands biodiversity Forest biological diversity Inland waters biological diversity Island biodiversity Marine and coastal biological diversity Mountain biological diversity

12 CBD ‘Cross-cutting issues’ Aichi Biodiversity Targets Access and benefit sharing Biodiversity for development Climate change and biodiversity Communication, Education and public Awareness Economics, trade and incentives Ecosystem approach Gender and Biodiversity Global Strategy for Plant Conservation Global Taxonomy Initiative (GTI) Impact Assessment Identification, Monitoring, Indicators and Assessment Invasive Alien Species Liability and redress Protected Areas Sustainable use Tourism and Biodiversity Technology transfer & cooperation Traditional knowledge

13 CBD: Tourism and Biodiversity COP Decision VII/14 in 2004 Guidelines on biodiversity & tourism development: “need to improve awareness and exchange of knowledge between those responsible for and affected by tourism and nature conservation at a national, subnational and local level.” “national biodiversity strategies and action plans should include consideration of tourism issues, and tourism plans should likewise include full consideration of biodiversity issues.”

14 CBD: Tourism and Biodiversity COP Decision VII/14 in 2004 Tourism projects - baseline information should include: Maps, geographical information systems; Detailed indication of the protected and biodiversity significant areas; Specifications on the ecosystems, habitats, species; Indexing of species.

15 CBD: Tourism and Biodiversity COP Decision VII/14 in 2004 Impact assessments should include information at all levels of biodiversity (genetic, species, ecosystem) Species composition, genera, families etc, rarity / abundance, endemism / exotics Population size and trends Known key[stone] species Conservation status

16 CompositionStructure (temporal)Structure (spatial)Key processes Genetic diversity  Minimal viable population (avoid destruction by inbreeding / gene erosion)  Local cultivars.  Living modified organisms.  Cycles with high and low genetic diversity within a population.  Dispersal of natural genetic variability  Dispersal of agricultural cultivars.  Exchange of genetic material between populations (gene flow)  Mutagenic influences  Intraspecific competition Species diversity  Species composition, genera, families etc, rarity / abundance, endemism / exotics  Population size and trends  Known key species (essential role)  Conservation status  Seasonal, lunar, tidal, diurnal rhythms (migration, breeding, flowering, leaf development, etc. )  Reproductive rate, fertility, mortality, growth rate.  Reproductive strategy.  Minimal areas for species to survive.  Essential areas (stepping stones) for migrating species.  Niche requirements within ecosystem (substrate preference, layer within ecosystem)  Relative or absolute isolation  Regulation mechanisms such as predation, herbivory, parasitism,.  Interactions between species.  Ecological function of a species Ecosystem diversity  Types and surface area of ecosystems  Uniqueness / abundance  Succession stage, existing disturbances and trends (=autonomous development)  Adaptations to / dependency on regular rhythms: seasonal  Adaptations to / dependency of on irregular events: droughts, floods, frost, fire, wind  Succession (rate)  Spatial relations between landscape elements (local and remote)  Spatial distribution (continuous or discontinuous / patchy);  Minimal area for ecosystem to survive.  Vertical structure (layered, horizons, stratified).  Structuring process(es) of key importance for the maintenance of the ecosystem itself or for other ecosystems

17 CBD: Tourism and Biodiversity COP Decision VII/14 in 2004 “Prior to … any new tourism development or activities, an inclusive monitoring and reporting system should be put in place” “important to raise awareness within the academic sector responsible for training and research on issues regarding the interaction between biological diversity and sustainable tourism, of the role that they can play concerning public education, capacity- building and awareness-raising on these issues.” “Capacity-building activities can … include strengthening human resources and institutional capacities, the transfer of know-how, the development of appropriate facilities, and training in relation to biological diversity and sustainable tourism issues, and in impact assessment and impact management techniques.”

18 The Global Taxonomy Initiative “The governments of the world that recognize the Convention on Biological Diversity have affirmed the existence of a taxonomic impediment” Darwin Declaration 1998

19 GTI Work Programme COP 6 endorsed a ‘Programme of Work’ for the GTI COP 9 developed ‘outcome-oriented deliverables’ 5 ‘operational objectives’ Taxonomic needs assessments Capacity-building Improving access to information Support for Thematic areas Support for Cross-cutting issues

20 Taxonomic needs in Turkey Turkey’s NBSAP identifies several issues, including: Pollinator – plant relationships need greater understanding; butterflies poorly known Soil microorganisms insufficiently known No effective conservation of insects in place due to lack of data and regulations Insufficient number of qualified personnel in the areas of biosafety, genetic resources, information management systems, GIS, modelling, mapping, databases, medical plants, taxonomy, climatology, storage, ecology, environmental law

21 Taxonomic needs and capacity-building For example: to manage a protected area the authorities may need to know: What species are present? What is their population density? What is their distribution across the country / PA? Are any genetic outliers present? Are there any exotic invaders? How do I monitor them over time?

22 Taxonomic needs and capacity-building This translates into a set of taxonomic needs: Inventories Identifications Identification tools for non-taxonomists Observational and specimen data Distribution information Standardised monitoring systems

23 Taxonomic needs and capacity-building And a set of taxonomic capacities required: Taxonomic expertise that can be accessed in a timely and effective way Access to specimen data from local and other collections Creation of identification tools Creation of distribution information Ability to manage standardised monitoring systems

24 Taxonomic needs and capacity-building To ensure that information and expertise can be delivered: Where it is needed When it is needed; In a format (and language) in which it is needed.

25 Taxonomic needs and capacity-building Strategic actions from Turkish NBSAP, plan to compile inventory, data and collection of invertebrates (especially insects), micro-organisms and fungi macro-level inventory plan for biological diversity in order to have interrelated and coordinated studies identification of reliable and economic biological diversity inventory methods and technologies Correlation between biological diversity inventory studies and research on soil, climate and other issues development and use of biological diversity indicators which are expressive, scientifically justifiable, practical and ecosystem-based programmes for monitoring of ecosystems, species and populations under pressure and of the functional relations within ecosystems

26 Taxonomic needs and capacity-building And strategic actions (from Turkish NBSAP, 2007) In order to identify, classify and store the collected samples scientifically, the strengthening of academic institutions’ capacity and the achievement of an effective sharing of the data and information obtained by those institutions

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28 Records of Bufo species in Ghana displayed on Google Earth generated on

29 Ecological Niche Model of Bufo species in Central Africa generated form Ghanaian data on GBIF. Red – high probability; blue – low probability.

30 ,000 km ,000 km ,000 km ,000 km 2 Loss of habitat – use of ENM: Tamandua mexicana (100% of original records through GBIF) Tamandua illustration: SEMARNAT, Mexico

31 Migratory species

32 State of knowledge of biota in Turkey GBIF mediates 157,564 records of animals, plants and micro-organisms from Turkey and surrounding areas 39,714 occurrences are georeferenced None of the records come from Turkish institutions (although Turkish databases exist – e.g. TÜBİVES)

33 State of knowledge of biota in Turkey “The number of insect species identified in Turkey so far is about 30,000, although the estimated number is between 60,000 and 80,000. (NBSAP, 2007) “The number of invertebrate species in Turkey is approximately 19,000, out of which 4,000 species and sub-species are endemic.” (2010 MDG report; 4th National Report from Turkey; National Capacity self-assessment project (2010) “There are 2000 genera belonging to 225 families in 14 insect orders and more than 25,000 specimens of more than 3000 species in the Plant Protection Museum” (Plant Protection Museum web site)

34 State of knowledge of biota in Turkey Inventories are being produced, but perhaps not coordinated Taxonomic tools also needed

35 State of knowledge of biota in Turkey Some aimed specifically at tourism

36 February 2012 Other GTI deliverables Surveys etc: Need to be carried out rapidly Reports generated in short time Standard techniques

37 Key Actions Turkish NBSAP, 2007: “education of people specialized in taxonomy, ecology and genetic areas to be able to build up a … biological diversity inventory with the cooperation of education and research institutions, and the organization of those people so that systematized work can be done”; “For identification and classification, capacity needs, including human resources needed in … taxonomy and ecology, are determined and actions to meet those needs are taken.”

38 Key Actions Turkish NBSAP, 2007: “strengthen the coordination and cooperation among universities, governmental agencies and institutions, gene banks, museums, zoos, aquariums, botanic gardens, non-governmental organizations, private sector organizations and other organizations”


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