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Copyright © Allyn & Bacon (2007) Research Methodology: An Evolving Discipline Graziano and Raulin Research Methods: Chapter 15 This multimedia product.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © Allyn & Bacon (2007) Research Methodology: An Evolving Discipline Graziano and Raulin Research Methods: Chapter 15 This multimedia product."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon (2007) Research Methodology: An Evolving Discipline Graziano and Raulin Research Methods: Chapter 15 This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: (1) Any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; (2) Preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; (3) Any rental, lease, or lending of the program.

2 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon (2007) The Essence of Science A way of thinking A way of thinking –Identify questions, refine them, and then proceed to gather data to answer them –Interplay between inductive and deductive thinking Research can be conducted at many constraint levels depending on the question Research can be conducted at many constraint levels depending on the question

3 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon (2007) New Directions in Research Information may answer some question, but it usually raises other questions Information may answer some question, but it usually raises other questions –New questions may require new techniques –Although the logic of research is unchanged Science is an interconnected discipline Science is an interconnected discipline –Ideas from one area affect other areas –Good scientific theories explain findings in several interconnected fields

4 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon (2007) Evolution of Research Questions Answering one question raises other questions Answering one question raises other questions –Establishing that genetics plays a role in schizophrenia leads to the question of “How?” These new questions lead to new lines of research These new questions lead to new lines of research –High-risk paradigms for longitudinal studies –Brain scan techniques, computer modeling, etc.

5 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon (2007) New Statistical Methods New statistical procedures open new areas to study New statistical procedures open new areas to study Many new statistical procedures are only possible because of high-speed computers Many new statistical procedures are only possible because of high-speed computers Vast array of new statistical procedures Vast array of new statistical procedures –ANOVA –Multidimensional Scaling –Statistical analysis of neuro-images –Meta-analysis

6 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon (2007) Analysis of Variance Most research designs covered in this text were developed to take advantage of ANOVA techniques Most research designs covered in this text were developed to take advantage of ANOVA techniques Used for group comparisons Used for group comparisons Very flexible tool Very flexible tool –Extended into a variety of designs (e.g., repeated measures, factorial, etc.) The most widely used statistical procedure The most widely used statistical procedure

7 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon (2007) Multidimensional Scaling Reduces a large number of measures into a smaller number of dimensions Reduces a large number of measures into a smaller number of dimensions –Assumed that the mathematical dimensions found correspond to some physical or psychological reality Once thought to be a way to quickly understand psychological phenomena Once thought to be a way to quickly understand psychological phenomena –It has not proved to be that powerful

8 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon (2007) Path Analysis Regression technique for testing whether correlational data are consistent with a causal model Regression technique for testing whether correlational data are consistent with a causal model –Like any correlational approach, it cannot establish causality –It can provide data that challenge a specified causal model One of many Latent Variable models One of many Latent Variable models

9 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon (2007) Neuroimaging Procedures such as CAT scans, MRIs, and PET scans all use sophisticated mathematics to produce the three- dimensional images of the body Procedures such as CAT scans, MRIs, and PET scans all use sophisticated mathematics to produce the three- dimensional images of the body The mathematics is similar to multidimensional scaling procedures The mathematics is similar to multidimensional scaling procedures Developers won the Nobel Prize Developers won the Nobel Prize

10 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon (2007) Meta-Analysis A statistical way to combine several studies on a single topic A statistical way to combine several studies on a single topic Involves Involves –Computing an effect size for each study –Computing a weighted effect size for the series of studies Advances scientific understanding Advances scientific understanding

11 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon (2007) Meta-analysis Science builds on its cumulative knowledge Science builds on its cumulative knowledge But statistical procedures tend to discount information from a study if the findings fall short of statistical significance But statistical procedures tend to discount information from a study if the findings fall short of statistical significance Meta-analysis combines both significant and non-significant findings Meta-analysis combines both significant and non-significant findings

12 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon (2007) Impact of Other Disciplines Scientific disciplines are inherently interconnected Scientific disciplines are inherently interconnected Advances in one discipline provide resources for related disciplines Advances in one discipline provide resources for related disciplines Neuroscience advances have had a huge impact on many areas of psychology Neuroscience advances have had a huge impact on many areas of psychology

13 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon (2007) Interdisciplinary Research Scientific disciplines are artificial boundaries Scientific disciplines are artificial boundaries –All scientists study nature using the same logic –But the complexity of scientific study forces specialization –Interesting questions know no boundaries Increasingly, interdisciplinary teams of scientists are attacking critical questions that cross current scientific disciplines Increasingly, interdisciplinary teams of scientists are attacking critical questions that cross current scientific disciplines

14 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon (2007) Field Studies More field research is being done More field research is being done –Many important questions cannot be brought into the laboratory –Field research often has better external validity Some argue for case-study approaches as inherently more valid Some argue for case-study approaches as inherently more valid High-constraint experimental research is also possible in the field High-constraint experimental research is also possible in the field

15 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon (2007) Laboratory versus Field Research

16 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon (2007) Impact of Computers Computer capabilities are exploding, affecting every area of science Computer capabilities are exploding, affecting every area of science Control of laboratory procedures Control of laboratory procedures Analysis of data Analysis of data Computer models of sophisticated theories Computer models of sophisticated theories Many research studies would be impossible without the aide of computers Many research studies would be impossible without the aide of computers Computers are only a tool; science still relies on its logic to answer research questions Computers are only a tool; science still relies on its logic to answer research questions

17 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon (2007) Science and Society Impossible to predict the directions of science Impossible to predict the directions of science –New findings will raise new questions not even dreamed of yet Scientific knowledge opens new horizons, but in the process raises ethical and moral questions that society must address Scientific knowledge opens new horizons, but in the process raises ethical and moral questions that society must address

18 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon (2007) Major Scientific Discoveries of the 19 th Century John Dalton’s confirmation that matter is made of atoms (1808) John Dalton’s confirmation that matter is made of atoms (1808) Sadi Carnot’s surmise that converting one form of energy to another is inherently limited (about 1830) Sadi Carnot’s surmise that converting one form of energy to another is inherently limited (about 1830) James P. Joule’s demonstration of the conservation of energy (1851) James P. Joule’s demonstration of the conservation of energy (1851) Charles Darwin’s and Alfred Russel Wallace’s discovery of natural selection and the theory of evolution (1859) Charles Darwin’s and Alfred Russel Wallace’s discovery of natural selection and the theory of evolution (1859) James Maxwell’s mathematical unification of electricity and magnetism (about 1880). James Maxwell’s mathematical unification of electricity and magnetism (about 1880).

19 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon (2007) Science An interaction between empiricism and rationalism An interaction between empiricism and rationalism –We observe nature and try to organize our understanding of it with theories –We test theories empirically, modifying or discarding those theories that fail these tests All scientists use the same logic All scientists use the same logic –Science is defined by its way of thinking, not by its technology and achievements

20 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon (2007) Summary Science is a constantly developing enterprise Science is a constantly developing enterprise As science develops, new questions are raised and sometimes new techniques must be developed As science develops, new questions are raised and sometimes new techniques must be developed Many factors affect the development of scientific research, but no factor is more important than the cleverness of scientists Many factors affect the development of scientific research, but no factor is more important than the cleverness of scientists


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