WHAT IS LEADERSHIP? Leadership has been described in many ways by many persons, but there exists no universally accepted definition.
WHAT IS LEADERSHIP? Common to many leadership definitions are the following dimensions: Leadership is inherent (Dye, 2000), a learned skill (Dye, 2000; Giuliani, 2002; Maxwell, 2003), adapting principles to circumstances (Patton, 1999), a process that focuses on making organizationalchanges (Kotter, 1990), not controlling people (Autry, 2001), a blend of characteristics and talents that individuals can use to develop into a leader (Lombardi, 2001), and attracting the voluntary commitment of followers to reach for common goals (Krieter et al., 1997; Nanus, 1992; Tichy, 1997).
LEADERSHIP THEORIES AND STYLES Trait Behavioral (i.e., autocratic, democratic, and laissez-fare), Situational or contingency-based Transactional Transformational Servant-leadership Strengths-based leadership.
LEADERSHIP THEORIES AND STYLES Trait Theories The problem with the search for traits of leaders is that it implies that leaders are born and not made. Individuals without these traits could never be leaders. It also ignores the influence and needs of the employees one is trying to lead. Trait theories focus more on leaders and less on followers.
LEADERSHIP THEORIES AND STYLES Recent research suggests that traits do make a difference when categorized into five basic personality characteristics (Judge et al., 2002): Extroversion—one’s comfort level with relationships; Agreeableness—an individual’s propensity to defer to others; Conscientiousness—how reliable a person is; Emotional stability—a person’s ability to withstand stress; Openness to experience—anindividual’s range of interests Fascination with novelty (Robbins, 2005).
LEADERSHIP THEORIES AND STYLES Behavioral Theories Researchers have observed three very basic leadership styles: autocratic, democratic, and laissez-faire. Autocratic leaders make all the decisions and allow for no or very little input from the employees. Democratic leaders consult with their subordinates and allow them some input in the decision-making process. Laissez-faire leaders allow employees complete autonomy.
LEADERSHIP THEORIES AND STYLES Situational or Contingency-Based Theories These leadership theories are based on three basic dimensions: task and relationship orientation and follower readiness (Hersey and Blanchard, 1988).
LEADERSHIP THEORIES AND STYLES Task orientation refers to the extent to which a leader engages in one-way communication by defining the roles of individuals and members of the group by explaining (telling or showing or both) what each subordinate is to do, as well as when, where, how much, and by when specific tasks are to be accomplished. Relationship orientation refers to the extent to which the leader engages in two-way communication, provides socioemotional support, and uses facilitative versus directive efforts of bringing about group change. Follower readiness or maturity. In this case, maturity is related the group’s or individual’s willingness or ability to accept responsibility for a task and the possession of the necessary training or experience to perform the task.
LEADERSHIP THEORIES AND STYLES Each of these dimensions can be located on a continuum that is divided into four quadrants (Waller, Smith, and Warnock, 1989).
LEADERSHIP THEORIES AND STYLES Leader-Member Exchange Theory This theory suggests that leaders establish special relationships with a small group of followers early on in the tenure of the leader. These individuals make up the leader’s in-group, whereas others are considered part of the out-group.
LEADERSHIP THEORIES AND STYLES Leader-Participation Model One of the more recent additions to contingency based leadership theories relates leadership behavior and participation in decision making (Vroom and Yetton, 1973). This model assumes five behaviors that may be feasible given a particular situation.
LEADERSHIP THEORIES AND STYLES (1) you solve the problem yourself using the information you have available at the time (2) you obtain the necessary information from subordinates and then decide on a solution yourself (3) you share the problem with relevant subordinates individually, getting their ideas and suggestions without bringing them together as a group, and then you make the decision (4) you share the problem with your subordinates as a group and collectively obtain their ideas and suggestions, and then you make the decision that may or may not reflect your subordinates’ influence (5) you share the problem with the group and together you generate and evaluate alternatives and attempt to reach consensus on a solution.
LEADERSHIP THEORIES AND STYLES Servant-Leadership Servant-leadership is a term coined by Robert Greenleaf in 1970, and it has been studied and expanded on by other authors, such as Covey (1998),Autry (2001), and Martin (2002). It is based on the philosophy that an individual’s first desire is to serve. Later, the individual makes a conscious decision to lead (Greenleaf, 2002).
LEADERSHIP THEORIES AND STYLES Strengths-Based Leadership Strengths-based leadership is based on the theory of positive psychology. The theory implies that individuals are more effective leaders when they become aware of and understand their unique talents and capitalize on these strengths (Hendricks, 2001).
QUALITIES OF EFFECTIVE LEADERS Recent authors (Ahoy, 2007; Buckingham, 2005,Maxwell, 1995) have identified five hallmark characteristicsof effective leaders. These are: modeling mentoring Motivating Monitoring multiplying successes
QUALITIES OF EFFECTIVE LEADERS Additional qualities frequently mentioned by authors include vision (Ahoy, 2007; Bolman and Deal, 2003), integrity (Maxwell, 1995) communicating a vision effectively (Clifford and Cavanaugh, 1985;Kouzes and Posner, 1987) commitment (Bolman and Deal, 2003; Clifford and Cavanaugh, 1985; Collins, 2001; W. K. Kellogg Foundation Report, 2000) positive attitude (Maxwell, 1995), confidence (Maxwell, 1995), character (Maxwell, 1995) passion (Bolman andDeal, 2003; Clifford and Cavanaugh, 1985; Collins, 2001), (Bolman and Deal, 2003 Kotter 1990; Kouzes and Posner, 1987; Nanus, 1992) honesty (Bolman and Deal, 2003), relationship building (Coleman 2002; Kotter 1990; Kouzes and Posner, 1987; Nanus, 1992) charmisa (Denny, 2002) team spirit (Cureton, 2002) creativity (Dave, 2002), being ethical (Keim, 2002), courage (Haverson, 2002), networking (Malinchak, 2002), self-knowledge (W. K. Kellogg Foundation Report, 2000) authenticity/integrity (W. K. Kellogg Foundation Report, 2000) empathy/understanding of others (W. K. Kellogg Foundation Report, 2000), competence (W. K. Kellogg Foundation Report, 2000).
Warren Bennis’s 12 Distinctions Between Leaders and Managers