Presentation on theme: "Colors are the smiles of Nature Leigh Hunt. Introduction Color. Or is it? How beautiful the world is because of color! So easy to understand. It ’ s one."— Presentation transcript:
Introduction Color. Or is it? How beautiful the world is because of color! So easy to understand. It ’ s one of the first concepts children learn. It ’ s real. It ’ s universal. It ’ s not simple. It ’ s not real. It ’ s not universal.
575 nm 400 nm 450 nm 520 nm 700 nm But why should a color wheel work? The spectrum is linear! Newton’s “color wheel”
Color wheels for mixing paint to neutralize color: OK. Not OK for assigning visual complement in spectroscopic analysis of compounds !! red cyan green magenta yellow blue
Color is our brain ’ s response to light. “ Light ” is a term that refers to a electromagnetic radiation. And electromagnetic radiation are waves of different energies that extend over a broad range: If the electromagnetic spectrum were a piano keyboard….. cosmic gamma X-rays UV Vis IR Radio induction power wavelength, nm 10 -8 10 -6 10 -4 10 -2 1 10 2 10 4 10 6 10 8 10 10 10 12 10 14 10 16 nm frequency, Hz 10 26 10 24 10 22 10 20 10 18 10 16 10 14 10 12 10 10 10 8 10 6 10 4 10 2 Hz the visible spectral region would be just one key!
500600700750650550450400 Each of the “ colors ” of visible light has a corresponding wavelength between 400 to 700 nanometers (or nm). Is this because the eye has a specific detector (or receptor) for 565 nm yellow light? And a different receptor for 450 nm blue light? And another one for 650 red-orange light? And so on, for every wavelength between 400 and 700 nm? Seems like that would be a LOT of different types of receptors. Nature is “ smarter ” —and more efficient—than that. Only three different receptors for visible light are used. 565 nm Light having a wavelength of near 565 nm will look yellow to most people.
Your eyes have only three color receptors (detectors) - the RGB cones (red-green-blue) Beauty in the eye of the beholder.1 It is the brain that interprets visible light as “ having ” color.
Yellow light is perceived by our eyes when two color receptors, Red and Green, are stimulated simultaneously. This is indicated on the diagram by the red and green arrows. It is the brain that interprets yellow light as “ having ” a yellow color. Beauty in the eye of the beholder.2
“ What about red-orange? ”, you say. “ Red-orange light would also simultaneously stimulate the Red and Green receptors. See? ” Beauty in the eye of the beholder.3 Aaahhh…..true. But look! The relative lengths of the arrows are different. The green arrow, i.e. G-receptor, is much less stimulated than the R -receptor. So, red-orange light is seen as different from yellow light due to the ratio of R and G response.
When the R receptor gets about the same signal as the G receptor, or R = G, yellow is perceived. Beauty in the eye of the beholder.4 When the R receptor gets a larger response the the G receptor, something like R = 3G, red-orange is perceived. It is the brain that interprets color.
Maxwell ’ s Triangle This triangle was devised to illustrate how three primary colors —Red, Green,Blue— can be added together to generate the other colors. At the center of the triangle is white. The colors in the triangle can assigned three coordinates, like a vector, determined by how much red or blue or green is mixed to make that color. For example, a saturated red added to a saturated green makes …yellow. Red and green make YELLOW??? Yup. We ’ ll show you how.
Maxwell ’ s Triangle Think of the saturated red and green colors on Maxwell ’ s diagram as vectors. Now, imagine “ decomposing ” these R and G vectors into the sum of the dashed arrows.
Maxwell ’ s Triangle See how two of the decomposed vectors that run along the right edge of the triangle are co-linear but point in exactly opposite directions? They cancel each other. This leaves the shorter vectors components these vectors have the same direction and point from yellow. They represent the yellow “ product ” from adding red and green.
Maxwell ’ s Triangle Blue + Yellow = White?! Blue + yellow vectors point in exactly opposite direction and cancel to make white.
blue + yellow = green Subtractive color mixing: light colors are subtracted from one white light beam white light beam = sum of all spectral colors shining on: blue paint yellow paint reflects this much spectrum reflects light reflected By both Green is only color reflected by both the blue and yellow paints. All red, orange, yellow, blue, violet removed. One light beam!!!!
ultramarine chrome yellow reflects this much spectrum reflects light reflected by both A transmittance —or reflectance— spectrum
blue + yellow = green white light beam = sum of all spectral colors shining on: blue paint (cerulean) yellow paint (lemon yellow) This blue reflects no violet. reflects light reflected by both a brighter green, less dull, because the (violet + orange = brown) is absent One light beam!!!! This yellow reflects no orange.
Cerulean blue lemon yellow reflects this much spectrum reflects light reflected by both
So the primary colors are not Red-Yellow-Blue??!! Primary Colors for Color Mixing Additive Multiple light beams added Subtractive Light “ hues ” removed from one beam primary colors R-G-B red-blue-green R + G + B = White primary colors Y-M-C yellow/magenta/cyan Y + M + C = Black secondary colors Y-M-C secondary colors R-B-G Demonstrate this: with 3 slide projectors Demonstrate this: with transparencies
(some) Color Terminology Hue green max, nm or o what color is grass? Saturationhow intense the color, , absorption coefficient relative to grey Luminosity relative brightness concentration (Value) how much white/black is added (e.g., molarity) Non-spectral hues are not in the rainbow! are not a component of white light examples: are not due to one wavelength of light brown, salmon, magenta, purple, pink termcommon ideascientific term
How does all this relate to spectroscopy of transition metals complexes?
Examples of changing 3-dimensional basis sets: Color space: RGB CMY Geometrical Space: Cartesian Coordinates (x,y,z,) into Spherical (Polar) Coordinates (r, ) Chemical “Space”: Atomic orbitals and molecular orbitals Conversion between the two primary color systems, Red-Green-Blue and Cyan-Magenta-Yellow illustrates the mathematical concept of equivalent basis sets and their interconversion
art history chemistry philosophy math biology language COLOR